Importance of Natural Resources

Spacesuits & Extreme Environment Gear

This video is sponsored by CuriosityStream. Get access to my streaming video service,
Nebula, when you sign up for CuriosityStream using the link in the description. They say you need to “dress for success”. This applies particularly well to working
in space, where you and your spacesuit become one symbiotic entity. Today we’ll be looking at spacesuits and
extreme environment suits, along with the improvements we’d like to make to them and
the challenges we’d face in doing so. When you think about it, the historical driving
force behind functional clothing is the need to protect ourselves to weather severe environments
and deadly hazards—and to look good while doing so if possible. Whether it was harsh sun, freezing cold, sand
in the wind, thorns on the ground, or spears coming at our torsos, any problem we thought
we could solve with a garment, we solved with a garment. The earliest get-ups we could reasonably call
environmental suits would probably be the underwater salvage suits of the early 1700’s,
which were basically barrels with a window and sleeves. These evolved into true diving suits in the
early 1800’s, human-shaped suits of sealed canvas and leather with lead boots and brass
helmets connected via hoses to a pressurized air supply on the surface. The first pressure suits, which were made
to keep human bodies under enough pressure when the environment didn’t, were products
of high-altitude aviation programs of the 1930’s, an alternative to pressurizing a
plane’s cockpit. These are the ancestors of spacesuits. Modern firefighting gear draws heavily on
spacesuit technology developed for the Apollo Missions. And some of those technologies are even making
their way into casual day-to-day use, like air-conditioned vests. Suits that would let you explore lethal environments
like the depth of gas giants or the infernal surface of Venus are really environmental
suits not spacesuits, but there’s a long history of connection and feedback between
development of the two. So you might say that spacesuits were developed
for the vacuum, but not in one. At higher levels of technologies the term
spacesuit might get to be a bit vague too. As an example, if the general notion is to
be able to feel like you’re walking around normally at home, a telepresence into an android
or even a mind upload into one is arguably achieving that goal far better than any suit
could realistically permit, but isn’t really what we’d think of as a suit. Alternatively, going around in some non-humanoid
vehicle, like a submarine or space shuttle, is obviously not a suit, but some large humanoid
robot or mecha presumably isn’t either, though something like an exoskeleton or power
armor presumably is. For that matter, even a definition like a
self-sufficient garment or closed system, while ideal, is not realistic, you either
have a short deployment time or you need something feeding in air or electricity or fuel or so
on, not to mention removing waste from the suit, where you can’t recycle it. Which for anything you are planning to spend
many hours in is not just going to be exhaled carbon dioxide and moisture from your breath
and skin. Toilet humor aside, there’s no easy way
of saying it, so let’s dive right in. Going to the bathroom in a spacesuit is generally
going to involve a diaper – as it currently does – or tubes being stuck places most folks
would rather they were not. We’ve got some higher-tech solutions for
that we’ll discuss in passing, but if you’re curious, the science-y name for an adult diaper
in a space suit is the MAG – Maximum Absorbency Garment – and we will not even discuss the
early-space-era options which basically involved a bag worn under spandex, which is apparently
exactly as unpleasant and disgusting as you’re probably imagining. A space suit is generally considered to have
a handful of primary functions it needs to perform and a few secondary ones. For the primary ones it has to be able to
supply breathable oxygen, which in practice means also having a method to remove carbon
dioxide, though not necessarily. It has to be able to maintain a stable internal
pressure, though not necessarily Earth pressure. Suits leak and leakage is based on the difference
in pressure on each side of the leak. Higher pressure means a faster leak, so we
use partial pressure in spacesuits usually with a high ratio of oxygen, whereas normal
air is mostly nitrogen. Partial pressure requires a delay in adapting
to it though, pre-breathing to get the nitrogen out of your blood, so you can’t just jump
in such a suit and out an airlock. In an emergency or if you’re impatient that’s
a problem. That’s something we try to rectify with
the Z-series spacesuits, which take advantage of improvements in materials and manufacturing
processes to be more robust and operate at higher pressure so you don’t need to pre-breathe. The EMU suit we’ve all seen normally runs
at a little under a third of normal atmospheric pressure, which is 14 PSI or 100 Kilopascals. The Z series runs at over half, 8.3 PSI, as
does the Mark III suit. We don’t need to pre-breathe to purge nitrogen
until pressure drops to a certain point. The magic 8.3 PSI is sufficient to circumvent
that so is ideal for suits since they leak less and we can use them sooner because we
don’t need to pre-breathe. Also, it’s actually rather hard to move
in some space suits from higher internal air pressure. One of the reasons Hard Shell suits are nice,
even though they are heavy and not flexible, is they leak less and they aren’t essentially
a balloon. It’s not something you normally think of
but if you’re wearing something flexible at a higher pressure than outside, everytime
you move you’re fighting a lot of gases moving around and stretching at that fabric
as you bend it. Think about trying to bend a hose while it’s
turned on or crunch a soda can that isn’t open yet. That’s one reason skintight suits, like
MIT’s Bio Suit, which is elastic and compresses you to maintain pressure on the body, except
at the helmet, are optimal for mobility if we can get them working well. You could potentially wear all but the helmet
for prolonged periods and just don it if you need to go out. One reason skintight suits are optimal for
mobility. Skintight suits, like MIT’s Bio Suit, are
elastic and compress you to maintain pressure on the body, rather than relying on an envelope
of air in the suit to do that. Getting out an airlock is a time-consuming
process too, and the Z-series I mentioned a moment ago seeks to circumvent that using
the new suitport dock mechanism that lets you crawl from the vehicle into the suit and
back out when you’re done. While saving space, it actually has other
advantages in environments like the Moon and Mars because the regolith soils there are
corrosive and toxic, so you don’t want them in your vehicle anyway. Besides delays from pre-breathing, donning
spacesuits is hazardously time-consuming during an emergency so a suit you can don very quickly,
without help, and at full vehicle or habitat pressure is essentially your ideal one. So components able to self-seal reliably and
without oversight is another of those areas future technology might help with a lot. Additional primary functions are temperature
regulation, mobility, a communication system, and the waste elimination issue we discussed. Communication can be non-obvious, as a reminder
you need a microphone and transmitter in a suit because there is no air to carry sound
around you unless you touched helmets together and shouted. Nor can you use sign language very well in
those suits as even if you have line of sight to signal someone, the mobility, especially
in the gloves, tends to be very limited. Indeed astronauts often have very sore hands
from just trying to do anything in those bulky gloves. The ability to introduce computers into equipment
is obviously an advantage that needs no explaining, but controlling things inside a suit is quite
difficult, those bulky gloves make typing hard and result in very large buttons on devices
in space. One of the ways of helping with that is incorporating
things like electronic textiles for buttons, heads-up displays, and speech recognition
software, and we see that in the I-Suit, one of the other candidates for replacing the
EMU. It is also lighter than many designs by incorporating
materials like titanium, fiberglass, and graphite-epoxy. Temperature can also be non-obvious, we get
told about space being a frozen ultra-cold place but it mostly isn’t, those suits can
heat up quite fast in direct sunlight as they can only get rid of heat by radiation. This is not true in an environment other than
space, like the surface of Venus, and we’ll come back to some methods for dealing with
heat, for the moment it’s just a reminder that some functions of spacesuits won’t
be necessary for extreme environment suits or alternatively include new necessary functions
or the same ones but harder to deal with. Of the secondary functions for a suit we have
to solve problems like radiation and micrometeoroids, other matters of hygiene, as well as propulsion
capability, the other half of the mobility issue besides dexterity, and of course duration
so you can be in one and survive, or be comfortable. Comfort does matter a lot too, not just as
a nice addition to make more folks willing to wear one, but in terms of productivity
and errors. If you saw our Giant Robots & Power Armor
episode, you probably remember me mentioning that I always found the stifling heat of wearing
body armor far worse than its weight and it wasn’t just from exhaustion. If you’re itchy – and it’s hard to scratch
in such things – or nauseous or disoriented or just generally distracted by your own gear,
it represents a real hazard. It gets easier to make mistakes by distraction
and fatigue, and your productivity in that thing, already slowed by mobility and dexterity
issues, drops further from compensating for that added risk. There’s also the low gravity concern on
health. We wouldn’t typically think of that as a
problem since these are short term devices and you either are going back to a ship or
station with just as low of a gravity – in which case the problem isn’t relieved but
isn’t really different in the suit – or it is just temporary as you are returning
to a place with gravity, natural or artificial like a rotating habitat module. This amusingly is actually fairly easy to
solve though, if you have to persist in a suit for a very long time you could mount
a winch and tether on the shoulders of such a suit and shoot it into something, like tossing
a grapple around a beam and swinging around it to produce centrifugal force, or detach
a piece of your gear on a tether, like a spent oxygen or supply tank, so you could spin around
that way. It’s hard to work that way but you could
sleep under spin-gravity then, which would help. Similarly if you’re working on the outside
of a rotating habitat drum and you tether to it, you will get that spin-gravity effect,
so you’d want to orient so it was above you so you didn’t feel like you’re hanging
upside down and get blood rushing to your head, as you would if you were walking on
the outside of the drum with magnetic boots. Fluids migrating around inside your body in
low gravity is an issue too, one we mostly handle now through compression clothing to
fight swelling. Fluids outside your body is another problem,
humans sweat, a lot. It’s actually one of our nicest adaptations
that most animals don’t have and why we can get away with a lot of long endurance
activities without suffering heatstroke. Sweating out a liter of water during an hour
of exercise would be fairly normal, and in a heavy suit, especially one getting hot,
you need a way to clear that humidity and unfog your visor. One approach for that is to have something
like an air-conditioning vest, keeping you cool and condensing that moisture and ideally
draining it away. But that means you need radiators, big ones,
so that you might look like you had a pair of batwings. However that also takes power and we have
very bad batteries, even nowadays. Power can be maintained through a cable, or
beamed in, but you could also pump in air and coolant too and pump them out. Plus a large radiating surface might do double
duty as solar collectors. What you’re pumping to and from might be
mobile as well. It might be something like a rover or jetbike
that was your main vehicle and which you were linked to by cables, but it might be various
specialized drones that follow you around, detaching and resupplying from elsewhere as
needed and staying out of the way. In the power armor episode I mentioned how
you might tend to be followed around by a posse of robots who carried around all your
resupply or power generators, or even carried around your guns and you just directed the
show. The same could apply here, you go out in a
vehicle, or on a vehicle, with various drones, and they do a lot of the work of keeping you
alive without your attention or inconvenience. So a couple are carrying spare air tanks or
hoses connected to air supplies and scrubbers, another is running around with a big shield
keeping between you and the Sun, and supplying power via solar panels. Others are running radar and feeding that
info to you while watching for micrometeors and targeting them, one is possibly hooking
up to remove bodily waste as needed, and so on. These need not be high tech or smart, and
I should certainly hope not for the toilet drone, since it takes a special level of sadism
to give high intelligence to such a device. You could potentially do the same in a case
like Venus, with a very well insulated suit that was connected by a hose to a big mobile
coolant robot that trundled alongside you, but heat’s not the only issue. You’ve got pressure too, which is very high
on Venus’s surface so that suit needs to be very strong, and that is generally going
to mean very heavy and bulky, maybe too heavy or bulky even with super-materials and artificial
muscle fibers in the suit enhancing your strength. If you’re ever seen the Star Trek Animated
Series from the mid-1970s, you might remember they had personal forcefields that let them
beam down to places wearing just their normal uniform. We’re not likely to ever get such forcefields,
but there’s a concept there of importance. If you live on a spaceship, especially one
that gets shot at a lot, you basically need a uniform you can wear around all the time
that can serve as very basic spacesuit for at least a few minutes. That’s the general notion with skintight
suits or skinsuits like the Bio Suit I mentioned earlier, though it is not light and should
not be thought of as just some spandex catsuit. Such suits will generally have rigid ribs
on them and ideally ones that could contract around you so you could basically hop in and
have it hug down on you. Potentially such suits might incorporate veins
to carry coolants or heating to the body as needed and some strap on equipment like air
tanks though that sort of stuff starts adding mass and power needs. It doesn’t necessarily need a big power
supply, it might just have microwave power-absorbing antennas – rectennas – woven into it for soaking
up wireless power and a small battery and air tank for short durations of emergency,
but if you can’t make it very light you can potentially weave in artificial muscle
fibers to offset the mass. Although such technology is still in its infancy,
artificial muscles are one of those technologies we can probably safely assume we’ll get
working well eventually, and that will help with a lot of mass problems with suits, which
generally weigh as much as the person inside them these days. The emphasis is on mass not weight, as while
a ship might have spin gravity, in zero gravity you have no weight but you and everything
you’re wearing still has mass, which has to be pushed or pulled to move, and you will
tire out very quickly in tons of gear even without gravity. You probably also need some sort of rapidly
assembling or inflating emergency helmet worked into the collar of such a suit that can automatically
trigger in a pressure drop, though you might get away with a helmet drone, you walk around
with it strapped on your hip or flying near you and if it reads that pressure drop it
zips over and locks onto your head as ferociously as one of the facehuggers from the Aliens
Franchise. A human can survive depressurization for a
bit but drops unconscious almost immediately so it has to be automatic, but a blow-out
collar helmet or drone with a pressure sensor and maneuvering thrusters that just need to
lock onto a couple of clamps that might emit a positional signal needn’t require much
fancy tech or smart machines. A similar option might just be to have that
drone carrying an inflatable balloon and big mouth so it can open up and swallow you in
a pressurized cocoon for a bit. Though I suspect a collar that could inflate
around your head would be most folks’ preference. Of course, speaking of collars, it’s always
possible a last ditch protocol for spacesuits might be a collar that doesn’t just inflate
or fold out around your head but right through your neck too. If you’ve sufficient technology a decapitation
might be survivable, and it’s a lot easier to power life support for a lone head or freeze
one, to later be slapped onto a cyborg chassis or cloned body or similar. If you’ve just blown out a big tear in your
ship from a bad accident or some other ship shooting at you, you’re probably tumbling
away at fairly high speed, potentially tens or even hundreds of meters per second in a
situation in which nobody might be in a position to help for some time, or at all. A lone head needs a lot less delta-v to move
it back or stop it flying further away, and way less power for life support or cooling. Extreme, but presumably better than death. I should also note, since micrometeoroids
are a big concern, that a space suit with built in auto-tourniquets could be very handy
too, for other limbs besides your head, which you normally can’t tie a tourniquet around. Well, you can but unless you have that advanced
technology for restoring decapitation victims it’s not a good idea. Speaking of micrometeoroids, you’ve probably
heard of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, which is the outer layer of most spacesuits. It helps with heat loss, provides a radiation
shield, and helps with very small micrometeoroids, which are the most common, that would cause
pinprick leaks. In general you can’t really make something
that will stop anything carrying bullet levels of energy because those are smaller than bullets
and way faster, so they penetrate very well. Things like that or bigger, you can’t armor
a suit against, you can maybe have a point defense system that could shoot it before
it hits you but if it does the good news is it will leave a small hole through you and
keep plowing through space, retaining most of its kinetic energy, hopefully, and if that
doesn’t hit a major organ or your brain you’re probably going to live and leak air
slow enough to be able to slap patches on the holes in you and the suit before passing
out. But flying heads and robot replacement bodies
and micrometeoroids through squishy body parts brings up cybernetic augmentation and that
might be a much more popular path for future spacefarers than suits. It’s quite possible we could get some materials
that let you have a great skin suit, that you could wear all the time that takes care
of getting rid of your dead skin cells and other excretions and just don a bubble helmet
for EVA in, but what about a synthetic coating for your skin that just let it be resistant
to vacuum? Radiation shielding is nice too, and you could
maybe build that into such a coating, but radiation is mostly a concern in space because
of cancer, not short term lethal doses, and if you’ve got good cures for that you maybe
don’t care as much about getting irradiated anyway. You still need air, but you actually might
not. Needlessly to say if you’re sufficiently
cyborged you might not need oxygen anyway, but if you had a machine that could convert
water into oxygen implanted in your lungs and some sphincter in your throat or airtight
seal in your lips and nose, those could just slap shut. Your body is mostly water, which is mostly
oxygen by mass, and assuming you can eliminate the CO2, you only need around a pound or half
a kilo of oxygen a day, and you’ve got way more water than that in your body. Power’s an issue but once you’re start
replacing existing organs with more compact or efficient stuff you can go full-on Inspector
Gadget, and something like an expandable or inflatable solar panel worn in your clothes
or tucked into some compartment of your body might be quite the power generator. You could potentially eliminate a lot of the
digestive system too, which would make a nice solution to the bathroom issues, but you might
even be able to get away with housing things like a 3D printer in that cyborg body or,
assuming you’ve got plenty of power, wander around on some airless moon eating rocks,
which are mostly made of oxygen themselves. See the Cyborgs episode for some of the other
cool options, and we’ll talk about survival options in Space Accidents and Search and
Rescue in some weeks. Now of course that begs the question, if you’re
going that cybernetic, why not go full on android? That’s a brain in a jar on a robot chassis
or an uploaded mind in a robot, not even necessarily a human shaped or sized one. And certainly that would be way easier, especially
in extreme environments. You can potentially make a suit that would
let you fly around in the crushing pressure of Jupiter’s atmosphere or slog through
lava on Venus or a volcano on Earth, or sit around on frigid Pluto or even maybe fly around
the Sun’s surface, but you’d almost always have an easier time with a larger vehicle
with life support in it or it tailored to survive that specific environment, like an
android or giant walking lava-proof spider tank. Much of this depends on what materials you
have of course and to do a lot of these realistically you’d need materials we’re barely beginning
to understand or aren’t even on the radar yet, effectively Clarketech, and since folks
have been asking, yes we will do an episode on supermaterials this year, those we’ve
got, those we’ve got on the drawing board, and those that for now at least are only in
the imaginations of scifi authors and might never be something we get, things which will
never exist, the topic of our 200th Episode Special. But materials that are almost completely reflective
to all frequencies of light could give you ships and even suits that let you fly close
to the sun, even skimming it. Those that are basically thermally nonconductive
might let you wade into deep dense hot lava, those that are ultra-conductive to heat might
let you do that by connecting you to a radiator a ways away and much larger that siphoned
the heat off you faster than it penetrated. Smart matter and nanotech, tiny little robots,
might let you not just patch and repair suits near instantly, and the person inside them,
but let you jump out through an airlock that was just a membrane of the stuff that wrapped
around you to form a skinsuit as you leapt through, like a soap bubble. Or could rapidly manufacture you the survival
gear, including sophisticated devices for signaling for help or refining materials to
use as your supplies, that you needed to last till rescue, or even build you that rescue
ship. Needless to say all such options, if we ever
get them, are a long way off, but worth considering. A lot of these options also have potential
uses back home, same as we mentioned near the beginning that our spacesuits helped improve
our firefighting gear and our other hazard suits. A suit you could comfortably wear in space
almost all the time is one you can wear at home here on Earth too, and a lot of the features
we discussed today would be handy here or have adaptations that would be. Again, hazardous environment suits are basically
as old as humanity, right down to the first time we donned a hide or fur cloak or tunic
or shoes. You need the right gear to protect you in
dangerous places, but they’re still dangerous, and as we mentioned earlier, one of the ways
we might get around that in the future would be using android or cloned explorers, and
we have a new video up on Nebula, “Me, Myself, and I: Cloning and Duplicants” that explores
this and many other uses and challenges such technology might present in the future. If you’d like to catch that video on Nebula,
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CGP Grey, MinutePhysics, Wendover, and of course, myself, just remember to use the link
in the video description when signing up. We were talking about how we might survive
on Venus and it’s molten surface, but next week we’ll look at how we might cool Venus
down and terraform it into livable place where you wouldn’t need a spacesuit, as we discuss
how to bring Winter to Venus. But even if we terraform dangerous worlds
to be more Earth-like, we’ll still need space and survival suits and folks willing
to don them to rescue other folks, and in two weeks we’ll take a look at Search and
Rescue operations, the technologies that will improve them, and some of the new dangers
we might have to rescue people from. For alerts when those and other episodes come
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have a great week!

Reader Comments

  1. Interesting these seem better suited to being in liquid than vaccuum? Nothing to do with moon hoax by the way….only every people on the planet other than those from Jesuit established schools said it's liquid above not vaccuum… A thought to ponder….

  2. "Who put lipstick on my toilet drone again!? Damn it Johnson it's not funny anymore!"
    Mic crackle
    "Well get to the bottom of this sir."
    Snickering in the background

  3. Only Isaac Arthur would be discussing decapitation or dehydrating your body to breath as survival tactics lol. I love this channel.

  4. I have thought that in the not too distant future part of boot camp in processing having a sensor net surgically installed in your head so that you can control power armor without the delays from the feedback cycle with pressure sensors in the armor and in the event of amputation the prosthetics are plug and play so you receive the prosthetic in the same surgery that they cleaned your wounds. This same system with only minor modifications would allow your environment suit to have high dexterity hands touch sensitive hands without having to have them wrapped up in heavy gloves.

  5. You probably couldn't wade into lava, unless you had boots made of something absurdly dense. The difference in density between your body and lava is greater than the difference between air and water, and it took lead-filled boots to get diving suits, which are mostly filled not with air but with the occupant, to actually go down into the ocean.

  6. The entire focus of the novel I've been writing is a "species" of humans that evolved to become siphonophores with living space suits that are part of their bodies. The idea of "clothing" as an extension of evolution is really fascinating to me! Loved this episode.

  7. Isaac Arthur: Can you do a episode on how nuclear proliferation and other Mutually Assured Destruction technologies will affect our future as humans?

  8. Using suits to have humans go on Venus, well maybe some kind of deep sea submarines could help for the pressure but keeping the passengers cool enough to survive would be veryyyy difficult as we can't even manage to have robots surviving the heat.
    Otherwise suits could be used on Mercury, this planet is rotating very slowly allowing explorers to remain in the raising Sun fringe between the deep freeze and burning side and it has no atmosphere they wouldn't need to worry about cold or hot winds.

  9. What you would basically need regarding wastemanagement in a spacesuit is something similar to a stillsuit from Frank Herberts dune saga. Some sort of undergarment that somehow takes the sweat and the urine and transfers it to a system that filters out the water for cooling perhaps, maybe by passing it thru a heat exchange system and then storing it for rehydration ? If the excrements could somehow be captured and transferred to some sort of system that processes that waste into something usefull, like energy and/or oxygen (via some sort of bioreactor perhaps ?) Your idea about building automated tourniqet systems into the suit was something i also had been thinking about for some time. Regarding your decapitation strategy, i do remember reading a comic book adaption from the scifi novel The Forever War by Joe Haldeman in which they eventually wore spacesuits with built in surgical steel diaphragms at strategic locations on the body ( below the shoulder and the hips, above and below the knees and the elbows, and above the ankles and the wrists ) to immediately remove the part (or parts) that were compromised during a fight or an accident or crash landing. It sounds pretty nasty, but in any unforgiving environment (especially space) something like that with the built in automated tourniqet systems could be a possible lifesaver.

  10. Why the fuck am I so entertained to this kind of dull stuff?
    Nah I am not talking about the narration it is excellent.
    But a half-hour video about spacesuits? I am going to watch the hell of it and enjoy every second.

  11. I like the expanse MCRN power Armour,
    unfortunate that its still beyond our grasp with current power supplies and nano -materials.

  12. need to send a few factory spools of stainless steel sheet metal and spiral weld up a big ole fat tube and pressurize it to 14 psi… enough volume would allow for hours to find pinpricks and apply duct tape from the inside… and let the drones do the outside jobs… that's a suit I'd wear… Life in a 5000m^3 metal ballon.

  13. I like the skin tight closed cell neoprene idea the most, its the cheapest to manufacture, cheapest and simplest to operate, offers maximum mobility and it's the least leaky.  Bio monitors can also be integrated into the suit AND weewee tubes could be integrated  into the suit, for men anyway.  I think what I like the most is the elasticity of the suit, its like wearing a giant rubber band that creates resistance and would help a lot with sustained low gravity created bone density loss.

  14. During circular motion the acceleration of the object is vectored inward. Wouldn't you want to attach the astronaut at their feet so the acceleration is toward their feet? If someone is injured this sounds like a better way to return them to Earth-like physiology.

  15. Don't know if this was mentioned before but at 17:24 there is a drone attached to an oxygen tank which has four rotors. That's obviously meant for an atmospheric environment like you have on Earth. It won't even work on Mars since it's atmosphere is too thin for those small rotor blades.

  16. Wow, an epic episode, IMO. I'm hurting all over thinking about wearing a spacesuit that could amputate my limbs and even decapitate me for my survival. FREAKING AWESOME!

  17. Micrometeorites are relatively straightforward to protect against. Indeed, lots of vehicles are protected in a fairly standard manner. The micrometeorites vaporise on impact so a thin space between layers just allows the gas to dissipate before it penetrates. This is called “Whipple shielding” the outer sacrifice armour is just thick enough to cause the meteorite to vaporise and the space allows the vapour to diffuse away harmlessly. Job done.

  18. Small correction at 19:52.
    Hypersonic projectiles loose almost all their energy near the surface of the target.
    They dump their impulse nearly completely after a very small distance because they have to move the material of the target eighter with them or out of the way at hypersonic speeds.
    There is a easy law for penetration at hypersonic speeds:
    Density projectile x length projectile = density target x penetration into target.
    For example a 3 mm space rock with a kinetic energy similar to a handgun bullet would loose this energy in only about 12 mm ( assuming a density of 4kg/l).
    Such encounters are more like little detonations on the survace and less like traditional bullet penetration.

    On a side note:
    A gun that shoots 1 mm thick cables through space would be a horrific weapon!
    It would create a wide, unfixable hole in soft spacesuits and therefore incapacitate the astronaut immidiately.

  19. The ship Minds in Culture novels provided privacy forcefields and manually carried bodily wastes away through these forcefields — basically touching our wastes with their force field 'hands'. Did we program them to just love everything about us? They didn't seem to mind attending to all our bodily needs.

  20. On a more practical note, how's the expense and durability of suits these days? I once heard they cost a million bucks and only got about 12 wears out of them, which is over $83.3 grand per outing. That's some expensive clothing!

  21. You don't need cooling for skin suits. Your sweat can leave from a porous skin suit and cool you down quite effectively.

  22. Every time I click play I'm thinking has he thought of X? So far X is always covered no matter how outlandish. Jumping though a portal that coats you with a utility fog/ air wall nano suit was the outlandish one this time. Air wall is cool.

  23. Micro meteors is my biggest concern. How do we produce enough mobile energy to deflect them? Let alone the science of deflecting them!

  24. Do you think that we are better off creating devices that can regulate our blood pressure as opposed to spending so much time creating artificial gravity?

  25. I imagine a fume shell as a kind of emergency life sapport when a cappin or suit fall. It spares out rapidly and shields the body when there is a raided drop in perasher. The fose is full of oxsagin pian killers and sativa gass to staples the person and repuse there air needs buying time. Up to a few days or week for resource.

  26. 6:20 I heard that their is a problem preventing the development of the Skin space suit from progressing; is that the interface between helmet and suit might compress the veins and Arteries in the neck and posibly leading to higher probability of stroke/blood clots.

  27. 6:25 : Getting real geeky here…. a "Traveller RPG" Scout Suit (it was a Scout's uniform with a collapsible helmet for EVA emergencies, but could be worn with a hard helm for extended EVAs) ^_^

  28. Could metal organic frameworks, such as being promoted to withdraw water from air, be a low energy way to handle human sweat?

  29. Lost me within 5 mintes. Also daft tinkly music, strangely affected narrative and absence of date on upload – three things that tend to put one off.

  30. 7:56 you don't need to shout when you touch helmets together; the contact point between your helmet and that of another astronaut, will cary your voices through well enough that a whisper will sound almost as if you were speaking directly into each other's ears.

  31. Everything from 7:15 to about 2 minutes later, as why you have to become a Newtype; it offsets all communication related restrictions.

  32. 14:17 why did you use the word "sentient" as if it ]ere synonymous to "sapient"?
    All machinese are sentient aka of sense(s), but none of them are sapient; of wisdom~understanding, they inky calculate, not experience sense of individuation~distinction as sophisticated life forms do.

  33. One of my favorite SF series of books, the Hyperion Cantos, make use of something called "skinsuits" instead of space suits. Not sure of the veracity of the solution, but it seemed like a neat idea.

  34. (gene therapy based) uomoforming > spacesuits > biodomes or specialized habitation > terraforming.
    It's cheaper (in terms of energy and resources needed).
    It's more efficient and less prone to failure.
    It doesn't require specialized 'beachhead' type expeditions.

  35. Bullet-energy projectiles don't actually penetrate well. They are often coming in at 20 km/s or so and vaporize explosively on impact. So rather than making a nice deep hole in whatever, then penetrating through the other side like an armor-piercing bullet, they will only vaporize the surface into an explosively expanding plasma. It is quite likely that a 1 kJ impactor massing 5 milligrams would simply detonate itself on hitting anything more than 2 millimeters thick (or 0.2mm for dense metal. And probably splattter into a shotgun blast of debris (with similar energy to an actual shotgun blast) even from hitting normal clothing.

    Thus, the secret is to wear layers of whipple shielding. First spread the impact out over a much larger area using a standoff layer, then have one or multiple layers meant to take the much more spread out impact.

  36. Regarding leaking air slowly from hypervelocity projectiles at or above bullet energy: it depends on the nature of your spacesuit. Even if your spacesuit is made out of armor steel or titanium though, it is likely that a 1 kJ impact will make a 7.6 mm hole. About like an AK-47 bullet hole. Even Maraging steel would have a 6 mm hole in it. Now, if it is more than 3 mm thick, it could probably deal with that impact with no leakage. But that would probably be a armor as heavy as the wearer.

    That's pretty bad for any suit not designed to full on resist bullet energy impacts with no hole, because a 0.5 cm^2 hole will leak up to something like 20 liters a second of air at whatever pressure is in there. This will deplete your inflated air supply in a couple of seconds and any reserve air tank may not have the flow rate to actually replace the lost air. Even if it does, you'll lose a kilogram of O2 after just 2 minutes. That could well be a good fraction of your air supply.

  37. I can already tell us why not full robot! My manhood. Gotta have it and won’t live without it! Robot everything but that

  38. I saw a meme once of the human brain spinal cord and nerves…
    It said this is the human body the rest of your body is a spacesuit so that you can exist on Earth.

  39. A small airtank on your hip and an emergency transparent balloon on your collar might give you 10-15 minutes of emergency air so you can find an escape pod or a safer way to get some air.

  40. Interesting conumdrums
    Why would us humans consider advancement of current forms.
    Oh…..i know……no profit fot coraperate intrests

  41. I don't want my mind in some freak'n hunk of metal/carbon/plastic. I wanna go to another planet, as me, myself, and I. Flesh and bone. A simulated electronic hunk of crap, with someone at the controls? Boring. What is the point? Human astronauts know the dangers. That's why they're…astronauts. So light this candle, and send-them-up.

  42. Note: the old shuttle suit was designed to operate with full 14.7 psi. They didn't do that not because of leakage, but because the gloves were almost impossible to use at full pressure. Even at 1/3 pressure, it was PAINFUL to use.

  43. Ah, the idea of skin suits was that they would be porous, so your sweat can evaporate out and cool you. Only your chest and helmet area are pressurized.
    In theory you could peal off a tension glove in hardbacks, and put it back on without much trouble.
    …I wondered if you could unzip and take a dump semi comfortably?

  44. First extreme environment suits? How about the technology developed by indigenous peoples living in high latitudes? The inuit would sew themselves into their kayaks, a concept that seems readily adaptable to space exploration. What use are legs on a space walk?

  45. Needed a chuckle and came here to read Flat Earther comments. Their deluded fantasies about space suits and the vacuum of space are comedy gold!

  46. [ ENGLISH ]

    The Leathal Qualitative Human Choice – A One World Government – Our Course in the Stellar Space

    the all humanity that will be affected by something terrible: The Leathal Qualitative Human Choice.
    The change of the governments and the exposure and breakdown of the financial institutions. The planet soon will be cleared of the old system and control.

    "ad astra per aspera !" ( is a Latin phrase which means any of the following: "Through hardships to the stars", "A rough road leads to the stars", or "To the stars through difficulties" )

    Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth

    ( please using the right click of your mouse, and Open Link in Next Private Window, )


    . Our Course in the Stellar Space – The BEST COLLECTION of PODCASTS and YOUTUBE VIDEOS for

    ( please using the right click of your mouse, and Open Link in Next Private Window, )—the-best-collection-of-podcasts-and-youtube-videos-for


    A escolha humana qualitativa de Leathal – um governo de um mundo – nosso curso no espaço estelar toda a humanidade que será afetada por algo terrível: A escolha humana qualitativa de Leathal. A mudança dos governos e da exposição e divisão das instituições financeiras. O planeta será cancelado logo do sistema e do controle velhos. “ad astra per aspera!” (é uma frase latino que signifique algum do seguinte: “Com as dificuldades às estrelas”, “uma estrada áspera conduz às estrelas”, ou “às estrelas com as dificuldades”) (por favor usando o direito – clique de seu rato, e a relação aberta na janela privada seguinte,)

    [ DEUTSCH ]
    Die qualitative menschliche Wahl Leathal – eine eine Welt regierungs- unser Kurs im Sternraum die alle Menschlichkeit, die durch schreckliches etwas beeinflußt wird: Die qualitative menschliche Wahl Leathal. Die Änderung der Regierungen und der Belichtung und Aufschlüsselung der Finanzinstitute. Der Planet bald wird vom alten System und von der Steuerung geklärt. „ad astra per aspera!“ (ist eine lateinische Phrase, die irgendwelche vom folgenden bedeutet: „Durch Härten zu den Sternen“, „eine raue Straße führt zu den Sternen“ oder „zu die Sterne durch Schwierigkeiten“) (bitte unter Verwendung des Rechtsklicks Ihrer Maus und öffnen Sie Link im Folgenden privaten Fenster,)

    [ ESPANOL ]
    La opción humana cualitativa de Leathal – gobierno de un mundo – nuestro curso en el espacio estelar toda la humanidad que será afectada por algo terrible: La opción humana cualitativa de Leathal. El cambio de los gobiernos y de la exposición y avería de las instituciones financieras. El planeta pronto será despejado del viejos sistema y control. “ad astra per aspera!” (es una frase latina que significa el siguiente un de los: “Con dificultades a las estrellas”, “un camino áspero lleva a las estrellas”, o “a las estrellas con dificultades”) (por favor usando el clic derecho de su ratón, y el vínculo abierto en la ventana privada siguiente,)

    [ ITALIANO ]
    La scelta umana qualitativa di Leathal – un un mondo governo il nostro corso nello spazio stellare tutta l'umanità che sarà colpita da qualche cosa di terribile: La scelta umana qualitativa di Leathal. Il cambiamento dei governi e dell'esposizione e ripartizione delle istituzioni finanziarie. Il pianeta presto sarà rimosso di vecchi sistema e controllo. “ad astra per aspera!„ (è una frase latina che significa c'è ne di quanto segue: “Con le difficoltà alle stelle„, “una strada ruvida conduce alle stelle„, o “alle stelle con le difficoltà„) (per favore facendo uso del cliccare con il pulsante destro del mouse del vostro mouse e del collegamento aperto in finestra privata seguente,)

    [ FRANÇAIS ]
    Le choix humain qualitatif de Leathal – un gouvernement de l'un monde – notre cours de l'espace stellaire la toute l'humanité qui sera affectée par quelque chose terrible : Le choix humain qualitatif de Leathal. Le changement des gouvernements et de l'exposition et panne des institutions financières. La planète bientôt sera dégagée du vieux système et contrôle. « ad astra per aspera ! » (est une expression latine qui signifie suivre l'un des : « Par des difficultés aux étoiles », « une route rugueuse mène aux étoiles », ou « aux étoiles par des difficultés ») (svp utilisant le droit – clic de votre souris, et le lien ouvert dans la prochaine fenêtre privée,)

    Η θανατηφόρα ποιοτική ανθρώπινη επιλογή – Μια Παγκόσμια Κυβέρνηση – Η πορεία μας στο αστρικό διάστημα. Όλη η ανθρωπότητα θα επηρεαστεί από κάτι τρομερό. Η θανατηφόρα ποιοτική ανθρώπινη επιλογή. Η αλλαγή των κυβερνήσεων και η έκθεση και η κατανομή των χρηματοπιστωτικών ιδρυμάτων. Ο πλανήτης σύντομα θα απαλλαγεί από το παλαιό σύστημα και τον έλεγχο. "ad astra per aspera !" "στ' άστρα μεσ' από δυσκολίες" (Το μέλλον μας είναι τα αστέρια)

    Όταν έχεις εξαλείψει το αδύνατο, αυτό που μένει, όσο απίθανο κι αν είναι, πρέπει να είναι η αλήθεια.

    ( παρακαλώ χρησιμοποιώντας το δεξιό κλικ του mouse, ανοίξτε τον επόμενο σύνδεσμο ( ιστοσελίδα ) σε ξεχωριστό παράθυρο προς τα δεξιά, )

  47. A lot of Alastair Reynolds references in todays episode,

    Dog shaped cyborgs: Diamond dogs
    Nanotech suit walls and decapitation to save a person: The prefect series.

  48. Idk if anyone mentioned this already, but underwater leather suits with air hoses and glass goggles existed in the Renaissance period.

  49. I don't think decapitating space suits will ever be a thing, and I would certainly hope not and suspect others will always feel the same as I do now.

  50. Just watched one of your old videos. Holy moly, you have made some progress! Not that I minded your impediment at all.

  51. Regarding heat gain in space, couldn't you just pop open a ~90% solar shade and stay reasonably close to a comfortable temperature?

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