The state of our earth can be defined by how much climate change it experiences and by the total amount of food that is available through agriculture and trade. The world has increased its agricultural production over the past centuries. At the same time it is undergone climate change, partly as a result of activities related to agriculture. In 1850 the climate had not yet begun to change due to human activities, and food production was low. After 1950 world food production rose dramatically. Before 2000 we began to see evidence of human induced climate change, our climate will continue to change, given the greatly increased levels of greenhouse gases already in our atmosphere. Extreme events such as high temperatures, droughts and floods are already more frequent and severe. faced with growing demand for food fodder and bioenergy crops, many agriculture systems deplete soil fertility, biodiversity and water resources. Many regions exhibit large gaps between potential and actual crop yields. The path our world takes in the future depends on the choices we make. to be sustainable in the long term, the world must stay within certain limits this frontier curve represents the maximum amount of food we can grow under a given climate. If we do the best we can on every bit of land. It declined steeply under extreme climate change, which will have an adverse overall effect on agricultural production in the next few decades. Climate change will bring us toward and perhaps over critical food security thresholds in many regions. Areas currently suffering from food insecurity will be hit worst. This curve represents how much food we need to ensure everyone on earth has adequate nutrition. The world’s population will increase to around 9 billion by mid-century. It curves up under high climate change as we will need more food to make up for greater crop losses due to climate variability and pest outbreaks. This curve represents the effect of increasing food production on climate change. As we clear more land for crops, apply more artificial fertilizer, and have larger livestock herds, the climate impact already nearly a third of current climate change increases. A sustainable future must be located within the space defined by these three limits. This is the safe space. Today on a planet that grows sufficient food for all; a billion people go hungry. Another billion over consume increasing risks of chronic diseases. One third of all food harvested is lost or wasted. Food waste in industrialized countries is almost as high as total net food production in sub-saharan Africa. We are not in a safe space. This is where the world is heading by mid-century, unless we make some big changes. Hundreds of millions will remain undernourished, and we will be perilously close to the limits of food production. We can take actions to enlarge the safe space, and move the planet within its boundaries. First, by eliminating waste in the food chain, increasing equity and access to food, and shifting to vegetable rich diets that demand fewer resources, we can reduce the amount of food we need, by investing in agricultural research and development, we can increase the amount of food we grow; we can also expand the safe space, by adapting cropping systems to hotter climates through innovations such as improved crop genetics, and careful matching of crops to environments. Ever higher average global temperatures will result in less greenhouse gas emissions are drastically reduced across a wide range of human activities. Agriculture must do its share. By carefully intensifying production on existing agricultural land, we can reduce on-site emissions and reduce deforestation. Sustainable intensification will help close the food yield gap, while reducing emissions per unit of food produced. By reducing greenhouse gas emissions across all sectors, not only agriculture and forestry, we can slow down the onset and potential impacts of climate change. By implementing all these actions together, it is possible for Earth to survive and prosper in the long term; even the substantially larger human population that it will carry in 40 years time. We must transition the world into the safe operating space, through collective decisions and actions. Our most powerful actions for meeting food security needs while reducing environmental impacts include improving crop yields, reducing waste, changing diets, adapting to climate change, and reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. We can achieve food security in the face of climate change, learn about key actions for moving into the safe space, and explore successful innovations from around the world.