Ryan Godfrey: Hey there, it says connecting to audio so Ryan Godfrey: Point for that. Ryan Godfrey: There you are. Okay. Lorraine Johnson: Okay, can you hear me. Ryan Godfrey: Yes, yes. Sounds good to me. Wonderful. Ryan Godfrey: Great. Ryan Godfrey: Can you hear me. Yes, I hear you. Lorraine Johnson: I can’t hear you. Oh. Ryan Godfrey: Shoot. Okay. Huh. Ryan Godfrey: Huh. Lorraine Johnson: Are you muted, Ryan. Ryan Godfrey: I’m unmuted. Lorraine Johnson: I’m thinking maybe I need to put on headphones in order to hear Ryan Godfrey: Maybe I’m getting from one of the audience. Oh. Lorraine Johnson: Oh, Lorraine Johnson: Can you hear me. Ryan Godfrey: I can. Okay, so Lorraine Johnson: I can’t hear anyone Lorraine Johnson: And I’m unmuted. I’m definitely unmuted. Ryan Godfrey: Um, Lorraine Johnson: Oh, okay. Could you keep talking. Could you Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, I’m talking Ryan Godfrey: Okay there you got it. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, thanks to cause that Ryan Godfrey: That’s why we do this a little early. That’s Lorraine Johnson: Totally fine. I’m Lorraine Johnson: Just my lighting a little Ryan Godfrey: Okay. Yeah, it does. It looks pretty okay but Ryan Godfrey: Okay. Nope, I suppose it’s maybe a little backlit a tiny bit backlit Okay. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah yeah Ryan Godfrey: That’s, that’s a lot. But, no, no. Can you can you do that is that blinding you Lorraine Johnson: Blinding okay Lorraine Johnson: Yeah. Ryan Godfrey: There’s Pete Ryan Godfrey: We don’t want to blind you would be good for me the presentation. Lorraine Johnson: And that’s not any better either is it Ryan Godfrey: It’s about the same as it was to start Lorraine Johnson: This. Okay, Pete. Peter Ewins: Hang on a sec. Peter Ewins: Your, your faces a little bit dark Peter Ewins: Last time when I made that comment you Peter Ewins: Must have put a table lamp in front of you. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, I was in a different room. This room. The only lamp is like Peter Ewins: Oh, that’s much better. Peter Ewins: Okay, what do you Peter Ewins: What do you, what did Ryan say Lorraine Johnson: This very Ryan said it was good, but it’s very glaring for me but Peter Ewins: Kind of angle it down. Lorraine Johnson: If angle it down, it’s Lorraine Johnson: Weird like Peter Ewins: Um, what about if you put a white sheet of paper angle it down and get moonlight to bounce off the map white sheet of paper. Lorraine Johnson: That’s the, yeah. So anyway, that’s what I get for going into the office so you Lorraine Johnson: Know, books, rather than last time when I felt like I was in a Soviet gulag you know like the white background. Ryan Godfrey: But yeah Peter Ewins: I don’t know where Ryan is Peter Ewins: He’s somewhere different. And Jazzy, what’s going on there, man. Ryan Godfrey: Well, it’s just a a whiteboard that’s behind me, but I think well Ryan Godfrey: I mean my move the whiteboard. Ryan Godfrey: But I don’t think it’s it’s this whole like office space behind me. Peter Ewins: We have eight attendees right now. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, they’re getting a bit of an inside scoop. Peter Ewins: We’re actually in the green room right Peter Ewins: No, I think that’s unbalanced. That’s much better. Lorraine. Peter Ewins: You sparkle. Peter Ewins: Okay, I’m gonna Peter Ewins: I’m gonna sign myself off and there’s some needed just call. Okay. Ryan Godfrey: Okay, yeah. And if you’re good Lorraine, we can we can go off until Ryan Godfrey: Just a few minutes before two o’clock, then Lorraine Johnson: Okay, so in as in, you’re going to go off video and off. SOUND Yeah cool me to see you. Thank Ryan Godfrey: You soon. Yeah. Emiliy Vandermeer: Hi, everybody. Thank you so much for joining us today, we’ll be getting started in just a few minutes getting some people a chance to login Emiliy Vandermeer: My name is Emily vandermeer and the communication specialist with WWE Canada’s nature connected communities team and I will be your MC today. Emiliy Vandermeer: You may notice we’ve been running a poll, just to get to know you a little bit better to see where you are from if this is the first webinar that you’ve attended and whether you are currently part of the W WS in the zone gardening program. Emiliy Vandermeer: Okay, great. So we’ll get started. For those of you who haven’t attended one of our past webinars we started our garden for wildlife series. Emiliy Vandermeer: To give you the dirt on native plant gardening so that together we can grow Canada’s largest wildlife garden. This is our sixth webinar in this series. And so far, it’s been our most popular one yet. Emiliy Vandermeer: And I can imagine why, after all of the planning digging maintaining and monitoring of your garden you finally get to enjoy the fruits of your labor. That’s right. Today we are going to be talking about edible native plants. Emiliy Vandermeer: native plants aren’t only for wildlife, we can grow gardens that feed these birds butterflies and other backyard critters and also fill our own plates. Emiliy Vandermeer: So as I mentioned, this is one of our last webinars, but we do have one more coming up on Tuesday we will be joined by Dr. Doug Ptolemy Emiliy Vandermeer: He is the author of bringing nature home his book awaken readers to the urgent situation that wildlife populations are in decline because of the native plants that they depend on are fast disappearing. Emiliy Vandermeer: So on Tuesday, he’ll be talking about his new book nature’s best hope and how you can turn your green space into a Conservation Corps door that provides wildlife habitat. Emiliy Vandermeer: So you can register for these webinars on WW f.ca or also the end zone gardens website. You can see the URL on your screen. Emiliy Vandermeer: Also, if you have missed past webinars and you want to catch up on them. We have been posting them on YouTube. So if you go to youtube.com slash W WF Canada, you can review the past webinars and we will also be posting this one online about 48 hours after Emiliy Vandermeer: Okay and I’m just going to check out the poll here. And to get a sense of where everybody is from. So as you can see, most of you are joining us from Ontario, but we have people online, who are from BC, Alberta Manitoba back Emiliy Vandermeer: We have some people from the east coast and we also have a cohort of you joining us from outside of Canada, which is so awesome. Thank you for joining us today. Emiliy Vandermeer: Great, so I’d also just like to tell you a little bit about what in the zone is SO W WF Canada and Carolinian Canada came together to work on this program. Emiliy Vandermeer: So it is a community made up of thousands of gardeners in southern Ontario Carolinian zone, who are growing native plants and by doing so they’re helping us grow Canada’s largest wildlife garden. Emiliy Vandermeer: And we also have some really exciting news to share Emiliy Vandermeer: In the zone has partnered with La blah to source native plants for 35 of their garden centers across southern Ontario. So these plants have been carefully selected by native plant growers and they will make excellent habitat for pollinators and other wildlife in your garden. Emiliy Vandermeer: So we know that buying plants for your garden is going to look a little bit different this year but la blah garden centers are open and employing physical distancing measures. Emiliy Vandermeer: So like most other grocery stores. They’re urging customers to come in once a week or less. So consider planning ahead and adding native plants to your weekly shopping list and get them at the same time. Emiliy Vandermeer: So as you can see in the picture. Here we have a special in the zone garden tag that you can find on these plans and when you see that you can ensure that you are choosing plants that are native to where you live and will help local wildlife thrive. Emiliy Vandermeer: If you’re interested in finding out where these plants are you can visit the end zone gardens.ca website and we will have a list of the stores that are carrying the tag. Emiliy Vandermeer: Lastly, before I get to introducing our experts. Just some quick housekeeping, we will be doing a live Q AMP. A at the end of the presentation. So please put your questions into the Q AMP a box and we’ll be able to get to those at the end. Emiliy Vandermeer: So you might see some of our panelists answering your questions during the presentation. And you may also see them flagging some of your questions as answer live, which means that will be answering those ones at the end. During the live Q AMP a Emiliy Vandermeer: We are going to do our best to get to everybody’s questions, but we know that might not be possible. So, we will have the end of the webinar series we putting together a list of commonly asked questions and sending out the answers. Emiliy Vandermeer: So let’s get started. I am delighted to introduce you to our panel today we have Lorraine Johnson and Ryan Godfrey with us. Ryan is W WS resident botanist, and on the board of the North American, Native Plant Society. Emiliy Vandermeer: And Lorraine Johnson is the author of numerous books on native plant gardening, including the 100 easy to grow native plants for Canadian gardens. Emiliy Vandermeer: She’s also currently co writing a book on native plants for pollinators and also writes about urban agriculture and growing food in our cities, including edible plants. So without further ado, I’d like to pass this over to you, Ryan, get us started. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, thanks very much for that intro Emily will I’ll just start by going through the topics for today’s webinar. And then we’ll get right into it. I know you guys want to Ryan Godfrey: See some delicious stuff and I promise, we’ve got that at the end for you. So we’re going to start off really quickly. Ryan Godfrey: With some context about why native plants. I know if you’ve seen webinars in this series before this will be familiar to you. So I’m going to get through it real quick. I promise. Ryan Godfrey: And we’re going to do a little bit of context about what we are and are not talking about today in this webinar and then Ryan Godfrey: Just a little bit of context about what a native plant food garden can be there are different ways to do it and Ryan Godfrey: Sort of we’ll discuss that a little bit. The bulk of this presentation. I promise you, is going to be pretty pictures of plants delicious edible plants that you will love to grow in your garden. Ryan Godfrey: We’re also going to talk about organizing those plants by habitat types. So some of the plants that work really well together and how you can get a harvest from your native plant garden throughout the year. And we’re going to close off with some delicious recipes Ryan Godfrey: And then we’ll just talk about our closing remarks and give you some resources and next steps. All right. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: We’re just clicking through those things nice little animation there okay definitions. Always good to start off on the same page so Ryan Godfrey: To me a garden is any place where plants grow and people care for them very broad definition. Ryan Godfrey: Next definition ecology, the study of the relationships between living organisms and their non living environment. Ryan Godfrey: Next one, just to keep in mind. Ecological Restoration. Ryan Godfrey: assisting in the recovery of degraded or destroyed ecosystems, for the benefit of both humans and nature. That’s where were included in that okay stewardship, the responsible use and protection. Ryan Godfrey: Of the natural environment through conservation and sustainable practices. Ryan Godfrey: Next to keep in mind native plants, everybody asked me this all the time. What the heck are they Ryan Godfrey: They are the regional Flora has evolved in your place for thousands of years. They’re adapted to local conditions. Ryan Godfrey: And co evolved with all those other organisms and there really is no replacing that there’s no other substitution. You got to get those native plants. All right, next one. Ryan Godfrey: Is habitat any area that contains the features essential for the life cycle needs of an organism, not just food, but also shelter and no place for them to reproduce, all of that. Ryan Godfrey: Next up we have a botanist, that’s me a student or expert in the study of any kinds of plants, aka plant nerd. Ryan Godfrey: And again, I’m your Personal plant nerd for the next little while and Lorraine to of course, and then I added one here. Ryan Godfrey: Which is horticulture. So that is the art or practice of garden cultivation and management. Ryan Godfrey: And you would think that botany and horticulture necessarily go like this, but they don’t always, I will tell you, I know a lot of botanist who don’t don’t know how to actually care for plants. Ryan Godfrey: And it’s as a separate skill set, happens to be one that I’ve been cultivating myself and one that Lorraine is an absolute master at so very glad to have her to help out today with those types of questions. All right. Next slide please. Emily. Ryan Godfrey: So we’re going to go through this real quick. Why are we talking about native plants again. Okay. Next slide. Ryan Godfrey: So you’ve heard us talk before about the dual crisis of biodiversity loss and climate change heard us talk about how in ecology. Everything is linked so as one of these crises advances the other one does as well. Ryan Godfrey: May have heard us talk about nature based solutions. Those are the solutions that benefit both of these crises simultaneously. It really comes down to Ryan Godfrey: Protecting and means maintaining and restoring natural carbon sinks, which are also habitat for wildlife and a lot of that comes down to putting plants in the ground. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: So of course, we’re in a third crisis right now as well. And I love this quote from Emma Gilchrist I just keep coming back to it that community scale solutions are going to be really important for us in this coronavirus pandemic. Ryan Godfrey: And that now is a really good time to reevaluate our priorities and maybe think about shifting some things around. Okay, keep that in mind. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: You’ve probably seen this map before of the Carolinian zone. This is characteristic of lots of different places across Canada and outside of Canada. Ryan Godfrey: Where green spaces functioning habitats are declining. It’s a low proportion of Ryan Godfrey: The overall area, we need to increase that so we of course need to protect the remnants. But we also need to restore and enhance across all land use types that absolutely includes your gardens. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: The solution lies in ecology. So this, again, is the science of the relationships of organisms and their non living environments. Ryan Godfrey: It’s a very complicated science, but all you really need to know is that the basic principle of ecological restoration is you put native plants in the ground. You take the plants you put it in the ground, everything gets better. I promise. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: That’s it native plants. This is what ecological restoration typically looks like. Next slide. Ryan Godfrey: When we get into human dominated landscapes. It gets a little bit more complicated, but the principle is the same. You get the native plants you put them in the ground. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: When you get into a habitat and ecology like this, we’re going to have to think real hard and real deep about how to get those native plants in there, but I do believe that we can do it and I’m Ryan Godfrey: I’m sending that challenge out to everyone in the audience right now 194 people are going to put their heads together to figure out how to get native plants into a place like this. I think we can do it. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: Okay, so how do we know that we’re doing it right. We’re going to measure it using biodiversity, that’s the number of species. So how many plants. How many Ryan Godfrey: Insects. How many fish. How many birds, the more your ecosystem is functioning, the more species, you will find in there and that is a wonderful thing is we can reverse biodiversity loss in this manner. Ryan Godfrey: But that’s not all. We’re also looking at ecosystem services. So these are the things that we get out of nature. They have $1 value associated with them. Ryan Godfrey: And one of those very most important ones is food. You could eat food. Ryan Godfrey: And you might not have to go to the grocery store quite as often and and that is a service that is you will be benefiting from in your restored ecosystem garden. Ryan Godfrey: Finally, the third aspect is really important about functioning ecosystem to this connectivity. That means connectivity between patches between ecosystems, but also I think Ryan Godfrey: There’s an opportunity for gardens to connect people and neighborhoods of all different types through our shared interest in our natural landscape. So the question is, Ryan Godfrey: That you should be asking yourself is What can your green space do and it should be doing many, many different things all at once. Next slide. Ryan Godfrey: So just remind yourself every time you’re looking at your green space or your garden and wondering, what should I do next. It can be doing all of these things all at once. Ryan Godfrey: And and if it’s doing that. And if all of us are doing that, then we’re saving the world and we’re on the right track. So with that, next slide. Let’s get into the edible stuff. So I’m passing over to Lorraine. Next slide. Lorraine Johnson: Hello, everyone. It’s great to be here. Yeah, so that’s Ryan said this presentation is about growing edible native plants in your garden. Lorraine Johnson: So that you can harvest these plants to eat, and at the same time, you can create this amazing wildlife habitat and many of these plants are not available. Lorraine Johnson: As food as sorry as food in the grocery store. Like, you can’t just go and buy a wild ginger root at the grocery store, but you can grow it in your garden to eat. Lorraine Johnson: So what this what this presentation is not a boat is it’s not about foraging, although we definitely want to acknowledge indigenous sovereignty and the inherent rights of indigenous people to Lorraine Johnson: To wild harvest and to manage that harvest as sovereign people, but we won’t. We won’t be talking about that we’re talking. We’re focusing completely on growing these plants in your garden. Next slide please. Lorraine Johnson: We do know that we’re only scratching the surface of the many, many native edible plants that you could grow. Lorraine Johnson: And maybe we’ll get into some of the other ones in the Q AMP. A that we don’t cover in this presentation, but we’re trying to stick to plants that are pretty much easy to find in nurseries, so you can buy them. We’re also Lorraine Johnson: Going to focus on some some plants need a lot of processing to be edible like oaks, which are amazing for wildlife. They’re great trees for pollinators, but to Lorraine Johnson: harvest those acorns and turn them into a flower. It takes a lot of work, a lot of processing. So we’re not we’re not focusing on that we’re focusing on plants that are pretty easy to Lorraine Johnson: Harvest for their edible feature reporting plants with poisonous part. So in the middle there, the photo, the pope weed. Some people do, in fact, eat poke week shoots at a very young stage, but if you get any bit Lorraine Johnson: Of the route in that if you harvest it like it’s toxic all plants are most parts of that plant are toxic. So, except those young shoots at some people eat. So we’re not including those Lorraine Johnson: And some plants, you know, they do have these native edible plants are kind of an acquired taste on the photo on the left there the hydration cranberry. Some people think it’s the most disgusting fruit ever sour and it’s smelly when you cook it. Lorraine Johnson: So we’re really sticking to some kind of universally loved Lorraine Johnson: Native edible plants we would just like to say exercise caution, for sure. When because many of these plants like these might be some of the first times you’ve ever eaten them and you know you Lorraine Johnson: Who knows, like you might have some reaction or something. So try a little bit first before you just dive right in. We do urge Lorraine Johnson: Caution, we’ve also be focused very much on a vigorous plants that you can harvest the bit and they’ll still come back next year. So we’ll talk more about that in the in each plan. Okay. Next slide please. Lorraine Johnson: Ryan. Ryan Godfrey: Okay, yeah, I just want to say that acquired taste reminds me of a story. My one of my first botanical mentors in university. She’s to talk about plants that whenever she said, I learned Ryan Godfrey: Oh, that that makes a really great jam, which she really meant was, it does not taste very good. You have to add a whole lot of sugar before Ryan Godfrey: That becomes remotely edible. So a little bit of a code were there for folks but ok so I did want to mention here. Ryan Godfrey: A different kind of food cart. And so we’ve got a picture here of one of my favorite places in the whole wide world, which is the Alex Wilson community garden. Ryan Godfrey: In downtown Toronto and this is a good example for me of a fusion garden, what I would call a fusion garden. So on the left hand side you have Ryan Godfrey: A native plant garden and a lovely shady woodland type garden, and on the right side you have community garden plots where people grow food and they grow ornamental plants. Ryan Godfrey: And some native plants too. But mostly, those things are kind of separate and that’s fine. That’s a perfectly acceptable way to grow a garden and we will encourage that. And we’ll come back to Ryan Godfrey: Using gardens, a little bit later, but for the most part, what we’re talking about here are actually edible plants that are native plants. So they are food for Ryan Godfrey: For wildlife for pollinators. They are restoring nature and they’re also edible for us humans at the same time. So just Ryan Godfrey: That I don’t think there’s a better or a worse thing here. It’s just two different ways of doing it. And you can do both things at the same time. There’s no no problem with that. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: So if you are going in the route of edible native plants, you will find that some things are harvested in a familiar kind of way, like the sun choke on the left. Ryan Godfrey: Which really harvest. You know, I mean the plant doesn’t look anything like a potato. But when you harvest it. It’s kind of potato like you dig it up, you get a whole bunch of stuff out of the ground, and then Ryan Godfrey: You can plant some of those back so that they will come back next year, but mostly it’s sort of an annual harvests type thing. Ryan Godfrey: Some other things like in the middle we have the south of France. That’s a tree. That’s a big tree and you’re going to be harvesting Ryan Godfrey: Possibly leads from that to make a tea or possibly chunks of the route to make infusions, or, or maybe you’ll use Ryan Godfrey: A pulverized form of the leaf to make feel a which is used to thicken stews, like in a gumbo. So that’s a pretty different way of harvesting a plant. Ryan Godfrey: And then you might have something like again that high bush cranberry that maybe you decide to harvest it. Or maybe you decide to leave a bunch of it for the birds and it’s sort of up to you but really it’s just a Ryan Godfrey: Wonderful shrub that you will appreciate as a plant, and then you will realize that, you know, maybe you do want to harvest a little bit from it to for yourself. It’s, it’s fully up to you. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: But the point of that being it’s unlikely to look like a typical kitchen garden where you have, you know, sort of rows of herbs. Ryan Godfrey: That you’re going to be harvesting on a particular schedule. This is that is more of the fusion garden type of thing. Ryan Godfrey: And are this these types of plants are going to be harvested a slightly different sort of way. So now we’ll get right into the plants and we have organized them by edible feature. So, next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: This is my favorite botanical illustration that exists and I’m so glad that I got to put it in this presentation. Ryan Godfrey: Is this is a made up plant that does not actually exist in real life, but it was dreamed up by a botanist and philosopher by the name Gupta Ryan Godfrey: A German and he imagined a plant that had all the possible variation of plant morphological and anatomical features, but all on one plant instead of being on Ryan Godfrey: Lots of different types of plants and it serves a really cool purpose because I can show you. Ryan Godfrey: This is sort of a cross section of that plant that imaginary plant. Imagine you cut it in half lengthwise. Ryan Godfrey: All the way down to the root. So you can see all the different ways that roots can grow. Ryan Godfrey: Into tubers and rhizomes and corms and all of those things that we’re not going to distinguish in this presentation, but they’re just Ryan Godfrey: Different adaptations different ways that plants grow their roots and in the middle, you can see all sorts of different ways that plants arrange their leaves. Ryan Godfrey: And shoots. And then up at the top, just a reminder folks that the flowers and the fruits are the same part of a plant and they are the Ryan Godfrey: reproductive parts of that plant. So that is the way that the plant is reproducing and I just always like to remind people that when you’re eating a fruit. Ryan Godfrey: That is a mature ovary, that is that is what that is your, your, it’s the equivalent of a pregnant belly and that’s and you’re eating it, and the plant wants you to eat that to just say, Ryan Godfrey: So, Ryan Godfrey: Next slide please. So this is how we’re going to arrange things starting from the ground up. So we’re starting with these these plants here ginger and sunshine, so. So, Lauren, why don’t you talk to us a little bit about wild ginger, your experience with that plan. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, it’s one of my favorite woodland ground cover plants. It’s fantastic. It spreads pretty quickly. It needs good rich woodland soil. But the great thing about this the edible feature of this plant is that the route. Lorraine Johnson: Actually taste and it’s technically rhizome but as Ryan said we’re not going to really distinguish these terms too much here in this talk, but the Lorraine Johnson: The, the rhizome has a ginger flavor. It’s really delicious and you can I’ve cooked it I’ve, I’ve cut it up. I cut up the root and Lorraine Johnson: cooked it with peas delicious in the spring, like what a like what a spring dish, you know, wild ginger root and peace. Lorraine Johnson: You can also candy it you can candy. The route. If you eat meat. You can also chop it up and Lorraine Johnson: Use the route with chicken, put it in the, in the middle of, let’s say, a chicken breast and cook it that way. Lorraine Johnson: But one of the other great things about wild ginger is you know how we’re talking about you can feed yourself with these features of these plants and you can feed wild like one of the really cool things about wild ginger. Lorraine Johnson: See that flower. This maroon flower. It’s very close to the ground. Lorraine Johnson: And when the plant when the plant goes to seed. The seed has something on it called an ally zone, which is an ant snack. It’s this like really rich oily. Lorraine Johnson: attachment to the seed that ants take the seed and they eat the Elias home and they take it away and they plant the seed somewhere else. Lorraine Johnson: Far away from the relatively far away from the parent plants. So that’s anyway. One of the cool things. But how you can feed yourself and feed wildlife with these plants. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, totally. And I would say son joke is another great example of that, because the above ground part of the plan is a sunflower, it’s in the sunflower genus and Ryan Godfrey: At least for me, I found that sunflowers are such great food sources for BS. They’re always covered in these in my garden. Ryan Godfrey: And so throughout the year, you’re going to have this enormous sunflower thing that is fairly spread it by the way. So if you’re in close quarters, you know, just be aware that this is the kind of plant that will Ryan Godfrey: take up space, you might consider putting it in a container, for example, or you know just aggressively harvesting it every year, so that you can keep it in check, but Ryan Godfrey: I showed that photo, a little bit earlier from our colleague Pete’s garden where he harvested it Ryan Godfrey: And you end up this one this little harvest here is from I actually did grow it in a container on my balcony and I got this harvest in one year. Ryan Godfrey: Which I made into a delicious dish that I will show you a little bit later in the presentation, but they’re they’re potato, like in texture but Ryan Godfrey: Have like a creamy nutty sort of extra flavor to them, but I just love and I need more of it, really. I just, I should plant somewhere at this point. Okay, next slide please, for sticking with below ground parts and we’re moving to the onion family so Lorraine, tell us about wild leak. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, this is an amazing plant it sends up the flower first very early in spring, then the flower disappears and then it sends up these incredible leaves which are annuity and delicious and you need really good woodland soil for this plant. It’s slow growing and Lorraine Johnson: There are actually concerns about wild harvest of this plant. So I really encourage you to grow it in your garden and to create the conditions that it requires which means Lorraine Johnson: You know, creating a really good rich woodland soil. So, you know, leaving dead leaves over the winter in the garden to break down and improve your soil. Lorraine Johnson: Now the great thing about this plant is so you can eat all parts you can pickle. The you can pick all the routes you can eat the flowers, you can Lorraine Johnson: eat the leaves. You can make them into a pesto. You can pickle the bulbs. You can wrap. Let’s say sausages. If you eat meat, you can wrap those and with the leaves and grill them. So it is a really fabulous woodland edible plant and probably one of the better known ones. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, yeah, also called wild, wild ramps sometimes too. Right. Ryan Godfrey: And yeah, and I see a comment already about how the popularity of this plant has led to his near extirpation from certain places in the wild. And again, just reinforcing Ryan Godfrey: That’s why we’re not talking about wild foraging here we’re talking about growing the plant for yourself and for your friends and family that you can share it, you can harvest as much as you like. If you’ve grown it your own self. Ryan Godfrey: So, on the other hand, so another member of the onion family that grows really really well is nodding wild and one of my absolute favorites. Ryan Godfrey: This one does it grow in shallow soil conditions sunny ones, including our bars which are those those special habitats that have just a couple centimeters of soil so they’re a great choice for container gardens or places where Ryan Godfrey: Just don’t have very great soil and just like the the wild leaks. They come up really early. You can start this this picture. Ryan Godfrey: Sort of in the center here. I actually took that in mid April. It was already coming up in my community garden clause, and I Ryan Godfrey: I took a little handful of it brought it home and chopped it up for some scrambled eggs and it just adds a nice little it’s basically exactly like growing chives. If you already grow CHIVES OR green onions in your garden. This is maybe the simplest Ryan Godfrey: switch over from a typical cultivated Ryan Godfrey: Vegetable over to a native plant and you will almost not even notice the difference until it flowers and then you get these lovely drooping humbles which I love. And, and when Ryan Godfrey: When bumble bees pollinate this plant. They sort of hang underneath and and squirm around. It is very cute to watch. So that’s a really good one. Highly recommend for any beginner as well. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: More below ground. I believe we’re staying underground because there’s so much good stuff to eat underground. Oh, now this is a plant that I’m fascinated by have never grown in myself, but I’m just gonna listen to Lorraine, as she explains. Yeah. Lorraine Johnson: It is an amazing plant unusual you don’t Lorraine Johnson: I guess you don’t see it often in native plant gardens and yet I think more people should be growing it because it’s fabulous in Lorraine Johnson: shady areas part shady areas. It’s a beautiful Lorraine Johnson: twining vine, so you can use it and all sorts of different ways. It’s a fast grower, it’s also like humanists, so that means it fixes nitrogen in the soil. So it actually improves the soil as it grows and look at that flower like what an interesting Lorraine Johnson: You can tell it’s in the in the P family by the shape of the flower so beautiful and interesting. And then what’s great about it as well from an edible point of view is the tubers. Lorraine Johnson: That you can see there in the photo. They’re like potatoes and you can cook them like potatoes wash and peel them and roast them and they have this incredibly sweet flavor. Lorraine Johnson: Now, don’t eat them raw, but they’re actually have got really Lorraine Johnson: High higher the most vegetables and certainly other potatoes, a high protein. Lorraine Johnson: Content and calcium and iron. So really good and also you can eat the seeds in the NC pods. There are also edible. Lorraine Johnson: And I guess the best time to harvest the tubers is in the fall, but a really interesting plant and obviously don’t i don’t hurt. Lorraine Johnson: At all. If you want it to come back and as a perennial plants will come back year after year. If you leave some of those two birds in the ground. Lorraine Johnson: But you can harvest a couple. And I guess that we should I don’t think we’ve mentioned yet that Lorraine Johnson: Like these plants and these this edible native plant garden. You’re not going to feed yourself, you know, in the way as Ryan said earlier, you would in a like enough food. Lorraine Johnson: You know, turning it totally over to food crops, but you can get these really unusual plants and these special flavors like it’s a celebration of the region and our special zone when you grow these plants and when you maybe cook them. Yeah. Ryan Godfrey: Totally, yeah. Ryan Godfrey: Next slide. Yeah, I just wanted to make a quick note I was reminded and looking at these photo credits. I wanted to tell people that Ryan Godfrey: I got many of these photos off of I naturalist, actually. And so if you Ryan Godfrey: If you were president for episode number five all about citizen science. We spent a bunch of time talking about I naturalist Ryan Godfrey: And just just emphasizing that, you know, these are just regular people like all of you in the audience who went out took pictures of plants. Ryan Godfrey: posted them under Creative Commons licenses on the internet and and now we’re able to use them and share them with you. And I just think that’s a really cool aspect of Citizen Science that maybe we didn’t cover in Episode five so Ryan Godfrey: Wanting to bring it back to that. Okay. Meanwhile, we’re moving up above ground now to structures of the stems and leaves that are edible and we’re also we have our one featured non flowering plant here affirm the ostrich firm, what do you, what do you think about that one, right. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah. Another very so unlike some of the earlier plants, we’ve been talking about that are a bit, you know, you rarely hear about ground up, for example, but ostrich fern the fiddle headfirst you Lorraine Johnson: Hear about it a lot. You see it in stores that is one that you can buy fiddle heads, but why not grow them the ostrich fern. It’s fabulous. As a spreading Lorraine Johnson: ground cover in and shady conditions part shape conditions and those beautiful fiddle heads as they emerge, they’re starting to emerge right now. Lorraine Johnson: And as they unfurl in the garden. It’s so beautiful, you can harvest them at this young age when they’re just starting to unfurl you can see in the photo there. The small photo of the curled up Lorraine Johnson: fiddle heads. Lorraine Johnson: So don’t harvest all of them know you know because then you won’t have any of them unfurl interferons to Lorraine Johnson: To grow in the garden. So just harvest a few. And the other important thing about fiddle headphones is be sure Lorraine Johnson: To cook them long enough, they can actually like, don’t, don’t just sort of parboil quickly to have them crunchy that can really Lorraine Johnson: Cause gastric problems. So cook them, you know, like I know it sounds like overcooking but like cook them for like 10 or 15 minutes. I know that. Yeah, I got a big mushy. But if you don’t want any gastric problems. Cool. Ryan Godfrey: Goods and then the Virginia water leave. I mean, this is such a lovely plan. I’m growing it as well. It’s one of these Ryan Godfrey: Extra tough ones with these beautiful flowers that come up quite early in in the spring and it’s a little bit spread the two forms of Ryan Godfrey: Beautiful ground cover type thing, but this is one of those where I almost feel like harvesting it may be necessary to prevent it from taking over your entire garden. But I have to say, I have to admit I have never harvested mine. So what would I do with this plant Lori. Lorraine Johnson: Well, you would cut up the cut the stems and leaves the young stems and leaves. This is another feature of many of the above ground. Lorraine Johnson: edible parts of plants. It’s actually most of them you want to harvest when they’re young. Lorraine Johnson: As they get older they get kind of bitter or tough. They’re not as good but the young leaves and stems of water leaf are really delicious. You can Lorraine Johnson: Boil them almost like a spinach, change the water, a couple of times, cook them for about five to 10 minutes and they’re very delicious and as Ryan said this is actually a really good way to control a very aggressive plan. Lorraine Johnson: And aggressive plant that is fabulous for pollinators. Ryan Godfrey: Absolutely, yep. So this will be an important one to really take those photos. Early in spring so you can figure out what it looks like when it’s just coming up. Ryan Godfrey: Because it won’t really reveal its true form until it’s already maybe too big to to be edible and it might have gotten better by that stage. So, next slide please. Sticking with stems and leaves. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, and another Lorraine Johnson: Plant to harvest the young shoots. It’s the false Solomon CEO, you can actually eat the young shoots either raw, like you can cut them up and put them in salads or you can cook it like asparagus and it’s actually Lorraine Johnson: Kind of similar. And the great thing is Folsom and seal it can be a kind of pretty spread a plant you know Ryan was talking earlier about some of the code words we use so Lorraine Johnson: Vigorous plan might be code for very aggressive Lorraine Johnson: But anyway, it’s certainly not in all conditions. It really depends on your garden. But if it is some spreading a lot you that one way you can control it is to harvest those young shoots of some of them. Lorraine Johnson: And have them Ron salads are cooked like asparagus and the fire weed on the right. Another Lorraine Johnson: Very it’s a pioneering plant. It’s a pioneer plant. So it’s one that will appear in meadows, after some kind or after some kind of disturbance. That’s where it got its name fire, we’re, you know, following fires. It’s one of the first plants to appear so very Lorraine Johnson: Successful as a plant spreader. And this one, you can also eat those young shoots like asparagus, you could cook them and you can have the young leaves you could cook them like a spinach. You can also with this plant. You can have the the Lorraine Johnson: older leaves the more mature leaves and the flower can drive them and make a tea out of them. Oh, great. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah. Wonderful. And I just wanted to say to that some of the Solomon seals the large false Solomon CEO probably does like more of a rich with Lynch type habitat. Would you agree. Ryan Godfrey: But there’s another species, the Ryan Godfrey: Star flowered fall Solomon steel which Ryan Godfrey: Is an alpha specialist. So it grows in those shady or spots in those rocky Alvarez, so that’s one that’s on my list for container gardening, especially if you’ve got like a north facing balcony. Ryan Godfrey: with not a lot of sun. I think that’s maybe your plant if those are your conditions. So, next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: Okay. Oh, here’s another one of our, our lovely legumes and I can’t put a finer point on how important this is. It’s really quite a magical thing that beans can do, and hardly any other plants do it where they’re taking nitrogen. Ryan Godfrey: From the air and putting it into the ground, which I mean that’s what we’re doing when we’re fertilizing our soil right so Ryan Godfrey: These guys are helping you fertilize. It’s really if food is an important or soil health is an important thing to you, you need to have these luminous plants. And here’s another great example of it. So what do I do with this but Lorraine. Lorraine Johnson: Well, this, this is another sort of vigorous some twining vine that will kind of grow up you know twine and grow up other plants and or run along the ground. Lorraine Johnson: Of woods. It’s sort of a woodland plant but you can put it in sun as well center shade likes a bit of moisture. But what’s really amazing about it. This has to really interesting edible features. So in the summer when the flowers become the fruit. It’s a fleshy kind of seed pod. Lorraine Johnson: So it has seeds in it, but you can cook it like beans. So, but then some of the flowers actually flower at ground level and the fire at the ground level produces this single kind of seated pod and it’s like a peanut. You can eat it. You can eat it raw. You can cook it, and it’s just that. Lorraine Johnson: It’s like a not really but at ground level. So very interesting plant. Again, not, not one that you see grown in gardens. Very often, but one that I think more people should think about growing if you’ve got. I mean, it’s very versatile and it’s a good it grows well grows quickly. Ryan Godfrey: Good. All right. Let’s head to the next slide. Think we’re heading into flowers edible flowers. Yes, it’s true, folks. I’ll start by talking about violence among my absolute favorite Ryan Godfrey: Native Plants are many different species of violence available, one of my personal favorites is the common blue, violet. It’s pictured here on the right, just because it does have that Ryan Godfrey: By vicious capacity to to spread and and fill in spaces and it’s flowers are Ryan Godfrey: These lovely blue things. It’s one of the first little pops of color that you’ll get in your garden and of course visited by lots of pollinators early in the season. Ryan Godfrey: And what you can do is just pop those little things off. They’ve got a little bit of nectar at the base. Ryan Godfrey: And sprinkle them on top of a salad. You’ll look like a professional chef. Your friends will think that you are a genius and really all you did was just Ryan Godfrey: You know, have a little garden harvest over in the center here this other species is Canada violence. So most there are yellow violence white violence and purple. The blue violence and all are available if you grow a combination of them. I could imagine a very exciting salad. Ryan Godfrey: A bunch of different colors in it. Ryan Godfrey: And then similarly, so we’ve got red, but as well. So tell us about red but Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, well, if you mentioned them really beautiful exciting salads. This is something I do with the red but flowers which appear in early spring and are so beautiful. I actually Lorraine Johnson: Harvest flowers from this tree and put them in salads and it’s almost. It is like having this burst of of nectar and spring with the little bit of Lorraine Johnson: Almost tang to it it’s it’s a wonderful flower and it just you know it announces spring because it blooms so early, and this is an amazing tree. The red, but it’s an amazing tree for bumblebees so it is Lorraine Johnson: Covered in bees in the early spring, so you can also eat, you can see. So this, it produces these seed pods as well. Lorraine Johnson: And the ones in the photo are kind of dried later in the season, but when they’re very young when they just disappear and not all trees produce them. I have two different red buds to read buds in my yard and one of them will fruit with these pods and the other doesn’t. But Lorraine Johnson: The pods can be eaten when they’re young, but really, really young, you can put them in stir fries and that sort of thing I’ve done it, they get tough. Lorraine Johnson: Pretty fun I’ve had some Lorraine Johnson: Tough stir fries. I just want to say, there wasn’t comment in the chat asking about Lorraine Johnson: Some of the plants, we’ve been talking about, are they perennial or annual and sorry we should have said right at the beginning that I’m pretty sure every plant. Lorraine Johnson: That we’ve taught, we’re talking about is either a shrub a tree or a perennial, I don’t think any animals in their story. We should have said. Ryan Godfrey: That’s true, yeah. And it’s true most native plants in general there are only a few that I can think of that are animals and and those ones are typically self cedars like your. Hmm. Well, Ryan Godfrey: black eyed Susan wild Columbine can sometimes go for just one year, but they’ll pop up again. Anyways, because they probably drop seeds all over the place. Okay. Next slide please. Ryan Godfrey: We’re we’ve got I think we’re yeah we’re going on to fruits. Okay, this is what you were probably expecting starting with how could we ever do a presentation like this without talking about strawberries. Ryan Godfrey: They. These are everybody should be growing strawberries. If you’re not already growing wild or with Linda strawberries. Ryan Godfrey: Why are you not growing these plants. They’re so adorable. They form a beautiful ground cover type situation. If you have a sunny dry conditions, then it’s the wild. Ryan Godfrey: For Gary Virginia that you want to be growing. If you have woodland conditions is for Gary vesco which is the same species. By the way, as the cultivated European Ryan Godfrey: Strawberry that Nick, the big ones, but we want to be sourcing our plants. Ryan Godfrey: Ethically in locally, whenever possible, because they have again those tight co evolutionary relationships with our, our local wildlife. Ryan Godfrey: So the strawberries that you’re going to get out of these plants are littler they’re only only little but they’re packed full of flavor. They’re like, Ryan Godfrey: punched in the face of sweet and sour all the same time and it kind of depends on whether you’ve got a sunny condition or not, but Ryan Godfrey: You know, I just love strawberries, everybody should get yourself some strawberries. And by the way, plant them next year lawn and they’ll like infiltrate your lawn and you know just fill it in with flowers and fruits and Ryan Godfrey: What’s not to love. Meanwhile, speaking of things that I love. Oh my gosh service berries. This is the first edible native plant that I ever got into. And I was like, why didn’t I not have this in my life for like 20 years. Tell me about it, learn Lorraine Johnson: It is one of my favorite small trees, which is part of the reason why I think it’s really wonderful in urban conditions like it’s it’s it’s small its compact. Lorraine Johnson: It’s covered in white flowers in well right around now so mid May it’s blooming. It’s great for the pollinators. It’s a nectar and pollen source. Lorraine Johnson: And then when it gives wet when the flowers give way to these fruit prolific fruit all over the tree in in June and Lorraine Johnson: They, they taste the fruit tastes a lot like blueberries. But with this almond flavor. They’ve got that even kind of Lorraine Johnson: almond flavor you there’s so much you can do with the fruit. The birds love them. But since they’re so prolific since the the tree produces so much fruit. Lorraine Johnson: You can share them with the birds as well. You can eat them raw, you can freeze them for using them later. You can cook them into pies. You can make jellies, you can Lorraine Johnson: Make compost. Basically anything that you could do with a blueberry, you can do with service berries. They’re fantastic and they’re free fruit all over the city because there are lots of service berries planted as a as a street tree or in Lorraine Johnson: Just yeah just keep an eye out. And maybe have a handful on a walk. Ryan Godfrey: Absolutely. And I’ll say to that, um, Ryan Godfrey: They’re, they’re a little variable in their flavor. So one tree and even two trees that look basically the same right next to each other. One of them will have really delicious succulents sweet fruit and the other one. Ryan Godfrey: The fruit botanically we would describe it as insipid which is really just sort of nearly and not not very tasty. So I have a little mental math in my head of where all the most delicious service very trees are in Toronto. And if you ask me to share it with you. I will not Ryan Godfrey: Those are no joking. I Ryan Godfrey: I love to get a little, a little city harvest of these guys. And of course, leaving many, many for the birds as well. Yeah. Lorraine Johnson: makes me really a really important point. Ryan about just to stress the very ability, not just of service berries, but because these are wild plants sort of Lorraine Johnson: As in, they have not been Lorraine Johnson: tinkered with but say in by the nursery trade, so that the straight species them been genetically altered. That means there’s a lot of variability in them in, in all of the species, we’re talking about. So yeah, really good important point to stress. Lorraine Johnson: And to another fruit. And this one is pretty much my favorite native edible plant in in Lorraine Johnson: In the Carolinian zone. So the pop off tree. It’s a small tree. It grows incredibly well like it suckers it Lorraine Johnson: It’s it’s rare in the wild. But that’s not because it’s hard to grow because we’re losing habitat. So it’s an understory tree, which means it’s it can grow in in shade, part shade. Lorraine Johnson: It’s not super tall, it’s, it’s got some really interesting things going for. It’s the larval host plant for the Zebra Swallowtail butterflies, or rare butterfly. Lorraine Johnson: It the Papa tree produces the largest native edible fruit in the country. And you can see Lorraine Johnson: That’s my hand in that photo with a pop off from my backyard. So you can get a sense of how big they are. They’re like small mangoes, and they taste like a mix of, kind of, or well again as, as we’ve talked about the variability and flavor but Lorraine Johnson: They often Lorraine Johnson: Tastes like a mix of banana and pineapple. Sometimes, you know, there can be other flavors in there to the texture is like custard almost and they have large a couple of large seeds, sort of in a row. Lorraine Johnson: It’s also just an incredibly beautiful flower that is an early spring that has a slight, slight Lorraine Johnson: Older to it which attracts flies to it. Like there’s a special Lorraine Johnson: Fly, that’s a that’s attracted to it. Lorraine Johnson: And it’s almost tropical looking as you can see from those leaves, it’s, it’s hard to believe that this is a native tree native and that Lorraine Johnson: It’s not better known and those fruit. They’re hard to transplant. Like, it’s hard to commercialize pop off. So if you want. Pause You can grow. Now you have to grow a couple of the trees at least two three is better for pollination to get fruit genetically distinct Lorraine Johnson: Plants, so not clones because it does separate but genetically distinct Lorraine Johnson: Parent plants and you should get fruit within Lorraine Johnson: The eight to 10 years if you start it now and I do just want to give a shout at my favorite book about how to grow the Pot, pot here. I’m holding it. Ryan Godfrey: Out. Lorraine Johnson: The, pot, pot growers manual for Ontario and it’s written by Dan Bissonnette and it is still available so you can Google it. Or we can include some information about how to get it. But this is like the resource for growing Popeyes in Ontario. Ryan Godfrey: Amazing. Amazing. Yep. And this is definitely another one where when I ate it. I was like, I cannot believe that we’re talking about a native plant here like this. It really tastes like something at a tropical fruit stand or something. It’s, it’s, you haven’t tried it yet, you’re in for a treat. Ryan Godfrey: Meanwhile elderberry is maybe something that people are a little bit more familiar with because it is a Europe there are European species and you know the flowers are sometimes used to flavor various Ryan Godfrey: liquors or sodas or whatnot, but it is also a native plant. There are two species native in southern Ontario and one more species at least Ryan Godfrey: Out west. Now the important thing about this one is you really want to get a white elderberry that Sambuca canadensis which does like wetter spots typically Ryan Godfrey: And the way to tell the difference. This is my little my little trick is the way that the flowers grow. So you can see in this picture. The flowers are really spreading out into a flat shape. Ryan Godfrey: That you could put your dinner plate on top of. Okay. Imagine taking your plate. You could cover all the flowers with your plate. So that means if you can cover the flowers with your dinner plate, then you can put the fruit on your dinner plate. Ryan Godfrey: And if it’s growing in a different kind of way, which is more of like a pyramid shape type thing, then that’s your red elderberry and you do not want to put that on your dinner plate. Ryan Godfrey: Because it will make you sick, though, that one definitely is is is not a good plan to be eating so be sure that you’ve got the right species there. Ryan Godfrey: The flowers of this are also edible people do fry them so you can sort of batter them and then fry them and they make this cool sort of crispy pancake flower thing that is I’ve tasted one before. And it was it was quite cool. Ryan Godfrey: Next slide please. Moving along here, we’re Ryan Godfrey: Okay, more flashy fruit so raspberries. I’ll just a Peep. Everybody knows raspberries. Right. I mean, they’re, they’re Ryan Godfrey: A little bit annoying out in the field to have to deal with all of those pickles. The Rose family in which the raspberries and blackberries are tend to defend themselves more so with Ryan Godfrey: Particularly spiky auchi things rather than with poisonous chemicals. So that’s just something to be aware of with the raspberries and blackberries, but of course there was hardly anything better than a Ryan Godfrey: Great harvest in mid summer of raspberries, blackberries and a sunny spot there. They’re great. And, you know, everybody knows what to do. Ryan Godfrey: Either just eat them raw or make a jam or a pie or whatever you like. It’s just about anything you can do with it with a raspberry. And what about the gooseberries that’s maybe a less commonly known one Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, but it does produce those some the gooseberry fruit that we’re familiar with, you know, they start off the fruit starts off green and then as it matures, it will kind of turn Lorraine Johnson: purplish or reddish hair purple. But when it’s the early spring flowers of the gooseberries are incredible pollinator magnets, they’re really important for nectar and pollen sources for bees in spring. Lorraine Johnson: It’s this is a really versatile shrub for gardens. You can plant it in sun to purge shade dry to moist soil, it can when it’s established, it can be pretty dress tolerance. So it’s a really good Lorraine Johnson: Shrub in the garden. It also it has prickles so you know if you’re looking for an area that you want to Lorraine Johnson: Kind of discouraged. Ryan Godfrey: And I’m in a nice way discourage people from Lorraine Johnson: Entering or going past this. You can plant. The, the prickly gooseberry one important thing, though it to note is that Lorraine Johnson: It is the it’s the alternate host for the White Pine Blister rest, which is a really serious disease of white pine so Lorraine Johnson: The m&r recommend the Ministry of Natural Resources their materials they recommend that you don’t plant this species within about a mile, at least have a Lorraine Johnson: Have a white pine, which might be hard to find in the city, but you know, you might find it might be difficult to get that far away from a white pine is what I mean. So it’s get out before you Lorraine Johnson: Before you plant this one. Ryan Godfrey: It’s like social distancing for plants, but like, way more. That’s fascinating. One thing I forgot to say, but the raspberries and blackberries in terms of wildlife interactions is a really cool thing about them is that their canes. Ryan Godfrey: Are hollow typically and if you leave them in the garden that can be a great spot for various types of insects to overwinter and survive inside those upright canes. So leave those, if you would, in your garden and and you’ll, you’ll be helping provide a little home for various some Ryan Godfrey: creatures. So that’s just a good thing to do. Next slide, please. I noticed by the way we’re going, we’re spending a good chunk of time on these plants, which I think is good. I think people want that. Ryan Godfrey: may mean we skip some of the later ones, but we’re getting here to the end of our plants getting into the dry fruits and some nuts in particular. So I’ll start by talking about Hazel Ryan Godfrey: As a plant. I love the Hazel’s whenever I see a Hazel, particularly in the early spring, it’s one of those things that you got to look up real close if you can see my hand there in that top Ryan Godfrey: Smaller picture. There’s a little teeny little red thing there, which is the female flower of just this Hazel shrub and the male flowers which former sort of dangly yellow cat can Ryan Godfrey: Are a little bit further up in that photo. And that’s just one of those signs of spring that I love to see if you’ve got a whole bunch of Hazel’s in the mail flowers are sort of dangling down and blowing in the wind. It’s a beautiful thing to see. Ryan Godfrey: As far as the fruit go we we do have two species. The American and the peaked Hazel and frankly, no i i find the the squirrels have such a nose for the those nuts that they do tend to get there. Ryan Godfrey: You know they’ve got us us extra sense for when it’s just not perfect right time. So you may want to consider. Ryan Godfrey: Putting some protective netting or mesh around your plants as those fruits are becoming right so that you can get a harvest out of them. But even if you don’t, it’s just a very beautiful planet. And I would say grow it anyway. Lorraine Johnson: And the, the black walnut tree. I mean, how, how could we not include black walnut when when we’re talking about edible. Lorraine Johnson: native plants. So the, the nut is edible, but it have to admit, it is a lot of work that at that know I know people who have to drive their cars over the nut to get at it so Lorraine Johnson: So I work, but it’s you can pickle the green nuts you in the there’s sweet and delicious. And actually, I don’t know that a lot of people know that, you know, we think about Lorraine Johnson: Tapping sugar Maples for SAP and then turning it into syrup. But, you know, there, there are other native trees that you can, we can do that with Birch is another one walnut. You can do it with walnut and you can do it with hickory he’s Lorraine Johnson: Just a side note. Next slide. And I noticed that there are so many fantastic comments and questions in the chat. Oh yeah, when they were just amazing. I wish we could say so much more Ryan Godfrey: About doing Lorraine Johnson: Well, yet but Ryan Godfrey: Will we will we’ll get there. We’ll try to get through quickly here. Okay, so, so spice bush quickly. Very, very cool plant leaves smell amazing. The fruits are these little red things that tastes like sort of spicy peppercorn Ryan Godfrey: And they’re they’re amazing. And here I had to include. Okay, we’ve got a picture of wildlife here and animal. This is the spice bush swallowtail just Ryan Godfrey: The Spice bush is the larval host plant for that creature. So just a little bonus on top of the, the yellow flowers. The red fruit. The delicious smelling leaves you might also get a gorgeous butterfly and caterpillar to and then how about the Staghorn sumac. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, a wonderful shrub for, let’s say, a big open area that you were you want something to cover very quickly. Let’s say a Sunny Slope that you don’t know what else to plant on Staghorn sumac will create a colony there. Lorraine Johnson: But the The fun thing about that. What I Lorraine Johnson: What I use it for is the fruit. So you can see that that photo of like the Staghorn that’s the fruit and you can turn it into a really delicious lemonade. Actually, and it’s high in vitamin C you soak those Lorraine Johnson: Those fruit clusters in cold water but 15 minutes you strain it and it it and add some sugar, if you’d like. And it tastes like lemonade. I’ve also used the the find dry kind of hairs on the fruit as this as a sumac spice. Lorraine Johnson: Actually yeah yeah Ryan Godfrey: I see that in the comments. Someone just mentioned, is this the same as the Middle Eastern sumac. Ryan Godfrey: I it’s probably as different species or at least a different variety. But you will get a similar kind of flavor. And I’ve noticed that really high end Ryan Godfrey: Restaurants and chefs are using sumac a lot now because it’s, it’s a, kind of, it’s an ingredient that can add acidity to a dish without adding liquid which usually, you need to add like a citrus or a vinegar or something like that. But sumac has the the Ryan Godfrey: unique property of being able to add acidity without liquid so you can get some really cool dishes that way. Alright, next slide. Let’s, let’s pick up the pace here. Okay, so here’s just a quick quick plug for our garden garden guides here. Ryan Godfrey: These are some great resources you can learn lots and lots more about Ryan Godfrey: Gardening for wildlife in each of these guys they’re divided by habitat types. So if you have a shady spot consider putting in the time and the effort. Ryan Godfrey: To make yourself a restored woodland if you’ve got a sunny area a wildflower meadow is in your future. And if you really want to go and sort of different kind of direction. Ryan Godfrey: A water garden is a really interesting thing you can do as well. Ryan Godfrey: Now, in the interest of time, we had talked about we were going to do some combos some sort of thinking about plants that do well in similar garden conditions, but I think maybe we should go straight to question and answer. Yeah, okay. I’m seeing nods. I’m seeing God so Lorraine Johnson: Maybe with a free through the recipes just oh yeah Ryan Godfrey: Do this. Okay, so we we went appetizer first. So this was my Ryan Godfrey: My son chokes here that I just all I did here is I salt and pepper them olive Ryan Godfrey: Oil roasted chopped them in half and then I got some I made a little sort of creamy dip in the middle. And that was a delicious appetizer. So definitely recommend that Ryan Godfrey: Next up, we’ve got dinner. Lorraine Johnson: With Lorraine Johnson: My friend, Debbie does a lot of cooking with wild leaks here she’s made some wildly pesto for a pastor and a wildly tart. So Ramps. Ramps meal. And then, next slide. Ryan Godfrey: Desert. Lorraine Johnson: Yes. So all of these fruits. We’ve been talking or most of the fruits, we’ve been talking about can be turned in. So on the left elderberry pine on the right, a service BERRY PIE. Ryan Godfrey: So licious moment water. Ryan Godfrey: And then something a little different. After dinner. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah. So on the left there is actually a wildly acre ramps pickled ramps martini on the left and then in the middle is a wild ginger syrup. You can make Lorraine Johnson: A wild ginger shirt you just chop up the leaves and the root and boil them with water with about one to three ratio of sugar to water and get a syrup, and this is a bourbon orange wild ginger cocktail, and then pickled leeks on the right. Ryan Godfrey: Amazing. And I’ll add to this this list of recipes for cocktails. I’ve made. Ryan Godfrey: A Mojito that I have to say, Virginia mountain meant does a very good Mojito muddled up, it’s, it’s good. It adds a little bit of you get that minty flavor but little hint of lavender flavor or something like that going on to. It’s a battle really wow your dinner guests, I promise. Ryan Godfrey: All right, with that I think we will just wrap things up here. So these are our resources. You’ve seen them many times that one at the top is the same thing that’s right here that has to be written by Ryan Godfrey: Lorraine here one. This is actually the book that really got me into native plant gardening myself so I have to say it’s a pretty special moment right now to be able to have this webinar, together with Lorraine. Ryan Godfrey: So you’ve seen these references before do dig in. You’ll learn all kinds of things next slide is all about web resources again. Ryan Godfrey: These will be posted, you’ll see them in the recordings, and you could spend hours and hours and hours just learning all sorts of different things at these different websites. And with that I think Ryan Godfrey: That’s, those are. That’s how to get in touch with us. If you’d like to do. So Emily, once you wrap us up. Emiliy Vandermeer: Yeah. Sure. Thank you so much. Ryan and the rain for great presentation. I’m a little bit hungry now. Emiliy Vandermeer: I just wanted to remind everybody that we do have one more webinar coming up in our garden for wildlife series. Emiliy Vandermeer: We’re excited to have Dr. Doug Ptolemy join us he’s going to be talking about his new book and how your garden can create corridors for wildlife. Emiliy Vandermeer: You can register at w wf.ca and you can also watch previous webinars. If you miss them on YouTube. Emiliy Vandermeer: YouTube slash WW UK, Canada, and you can catch them there. And for those of you who are interested in joining our in the zone gardens program you can register your garden. Emiliy Vandermeer: And when you do that, it’s helping us track the amount of habitat that we’re adding back to the region, which is a great Citizen Science effort. Emiliy Vandermeer: So to the questions and I have a question. Actually, for both of you Ryan and Lorraine. Can you tell us what your favorite edible plant is Lorraine Johnson: I can’t pick one. I’m sorry, I can’t. I think I said about three different times in this presentation. Oh, this is my favorite. Lorraine Johnson: I guess I have to say, Papa, because it just has so many amazing things going for it, but Lorraine Johnson: You know, who doesn’t love fiddle headphones. Anything that Lorraine Johnson: Announced bring and then juris son chokes for that amounts for eating the sun show tubers in the fall. Sorry, can’t pick one fail, and then the raspberry. Lorraine Johnson: Sorry. Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, there’s a sort of every season. I feel like I have a new favorite one, but I think the the service berries really do it for me. Ryan Godfrey: Like discovering that I had been walking past this delicious thing basically all my life and just Ryan Godfrey: Didn’t realize what a treasure that is was quite a revelation, and then I have to say to especially for if anyone’s just starting out, wanting to try this for the first time, I really would recommend that nodding wild onion. Ryan Godfrey: Easy peasy to grow and also I don’t know exactly how true this is but people do say that members of the onion family are great for deterring Ryan Godfrey: Mammals so Ryan Godfrey: So squirrels and whatnot, do not like the smell of onions. So perhaps them growing those in and amongst your other plants would be a good little, little wildlife deterrent. If that’s something that you’re worried about. Yeah. Lorraine Johnson: And actually, if I could add maybe i i do have some some favorites that we we did not include in this presentation, we didn’t have time to include all of them. Lorraine Johnson: Wild grape is amazing. And it can Lorraine Johnson: It can be incredibly variable in the flavor just really want to stress that there is the genetic biodiversity within these plants within these street species and so Lorraine Johnson: You know, I’ve had wild grapes that are just the most delicious ever. You just want to eat them off the vine. Lorraine Johnson: So that’s a favorite while plum. We have a native wild clump here in in the Carolinian zones. So how fantastic is added another amazing edible native plant or the ground sherry a native brown chair here in Ontario. We’ve got a couple of them. So Ryan Godfrey: You can see we could have gone on forever and ever near this was, I have to say, we made a list that’s probably double the size Ryan Godfrey: That to get to this presentation. Lorraine Johnson: I was back Ryan Godfrey: Yeah yeah Emiliy Vandermeer: I know it’s so hard to choose. And so a question that I’ve seen come in a few times from people is wondering where you can get seeds for these edible plants or where you can Ryan Godfrey: Get Emiliy Vandermeer: The plants so that you can start cultivating your own Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, yeah. Well, I’ll say Ryan Godfrey: For one thing, growing. Most people do not actually grow perennials from seed. So I want to emphasize that most of the time when people are growing plants from seed. Those are animals. They’re fast growers so Ryan Godfrey: I’m growing some perennial native plants from seed and there’s this big now after a couple of months of stratify and and Ryan Godfrey: germinating and whatnot. So it is something that you can do, but it’s a long haul journey for sure if you wanted to get a harvest this year, I highly recommend starting with plants in minimum sort of four inch pot size, of course, Emily, you mentioned our law, blah. Ryan Godfrey: Relationship. The, the rollout of plants with the native plant tag in LA blah garden centers around Southern Ontario. So for the first time ever, you can get some of these kinds of plants. Ryan Godfrey: At those locations. Otherwise, I highly recommend you check out the North American, Native Plant Society. Ryan Godfrey: And their list of commercial growers from across Canada and actually even into the United States. So maybe are 10 people from the US could visit that site as well and find some some growers who really specialize in the local Ryan Godfrey: Genetic variation. And as I mentioned previously, there really is no substitute for that it is the gold standard and and they’re also just they’re lovely people very knowledgeable and they’ll help you out. Picking the right plants for your space. Emiliy Vandermeer: Great. Thank you so much. And another question that I’ve been seeing coming is asking, how do you make sure you don’t poison your dinner guests. Emiliy Vandermeer: By using a plant that you’ve gotten too late, so too ripe, or by identifying it incorrectly or cooking it improperly. Lorraine Johnson: We haven’t included any plants that will poison you if you harvest them too late. They might not taste so good. Lorraine Johnson: Too late. We did the one, the one plant. I think I mentioned with the fiddle head ferns, it’s Lorraine Johnson: You might want to make sure that you’re not, you don’t have a bad reaction when they’re undercooked so that’s one plan. And then we also we did include the fall Solomon CEO berries, which, although some people eat them. They are also considered mildly cathartic so you know Lorraine Johnson: For some people do have a reaction to them, but I think that and Ryan, correct me if I’m wrong. I think I think none of the plants we included will Lorraine Johnson: Will be a problem, even if you eat them harvest them too late. They just won’t be delicious. Yeah. Ryan Godfrey: That’s true of the plants that we chose. We were careful in that sense. If you’re thinking more sort of broadly about Ryan Godfrey: Health native Ryan Godfrey: native plants and and just if you want to educate yourself about the points the plants that are poisonous, which I think is a very sensible thing to do, to be honest. Ryan Godfrey: It’s good to know. And to be able to recognize and teach people those plants and I wanted to share a resource for across Canada, which is called the Canadian poison plants. Ryan Godfrey: Information System. It’s a government of Canada website, which is a really great resource that goes plant by plant. Ryan Godfrey: You’ll have to learn how to identify them separately, but if you know the name of it. If you can figure out you got into your field guide you figured out the name of it. It has tons and tons of information about Ryan Godfrey: The poisonous parts and whether it’s poisonous to people or to Ryan Godfrey: To cats or dogs that might be something that you’re interested in knowing or two sheep or goats or cows or horses or any other kind of creature. It’s all in there. So I would I would take a look again. That’s the Canadian poisonous plants Information System great website. Lorraine Johnson: Okay, and one of my favorite resources is actually this Peterson Field Guide to the edible. Lorraine Johnson: Wild lance and he does. Lorraine Johnson: It includes information about the plant parts that are not edible. That might be a problem as well. So although its focus is not point plants that will poison you it does include warnings about Lorraine Johnson: Poisonous parts of some plants that otherwise are edible. So that’s another great resource. Ryan Godfrey: Okay. And while we’re doing book show and tell. I have another one which is this one here. Ryan Godfrey: Edible wild fruits and nuts of Canada, and I just noticed this morning when I pulled this off my shelf that it is it is Ryan Godfrey: Volume three so I presume that there’s others that I should have to. And this is really great one. It includes some recipes in it, and it has a section in the front to about sort of Ryan Godfrey: Taking caution and how to how to keep yourself safe. It’s. It is a safe thing to eat native plants, but there are certain risks associated to make sense to educate yourself. So definitely, you know, keep that in mind for sure. Ryan Godfrey: Okay, let’s take some more questions. Ryan Godfrey: Great. Emiliy Vandermeer: So I just did a poll with everybody to see how many of you have harvested native plants before and we had an very even 5050 split Emiliy Vandermeer: And that’s really cool. Lorraine Johnson: When you asked about harvesting native plants before. Did you need from the garden. Emiliy Vandermeer: So I didn’t specify in the question, I think. Emiliy Vandermeer: I hope it was implied. It was from the garden. Emiliy Vandermeer: And I have a question from Lindsay. That’s for you, Lorraine, is there really no substitution to native plants and if our goal is to help pollinators. You can we use alternatives. Lorraine Johnson: Right, and I think, yeah, I remember seeing that question foot by in the Q AMP. A and it had to do with cultivars as well. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, like it’s located choose a cultivator have a native plant will it have the same Lorraine Johnson: Wildlife value specially for pollinators. And I guess you know that’s a huge question. And we could spend a whole seminar discussing only that question. Lorraine Johnson: But I guess it’s only a cultivator that’s available as in the question that was asked, it had to do with them, I think. Lorraine Johnson: Someone from Alberta asking the question about a native crocus that you cannot buy in a nursery, but you can buy cultivars of it. So in an instance like that. Yeah, why not. Lorraine Johnson: There’s, there’s definitely mixed research out there, regarding the comparative value of the cultivars to the straight species. Lorraine Johnson: In terms of pollinator value, it’s mixed. And it depends on species and there’s not a ton of research done on that. Lorraine Johnson: So I guess you know if you have a choice, and like, why not and and supporting pollinators is one of your goals as well. I would recommend going for the straight species, but Lorraine Johnson: Let’s say you know there’s the straight species isn’t available for some reason in the nursery trade or you really love some special feature of a cult of our just Lorraine Johnson: Know that it won’t necessarily have the same wildlife value that safe. It’s got double flowers like and so the pollinators can actually get at the nectar and pollen of some of those species. So that’s Lorraine Johnson: That’s the short answer of the very complex and fascinating question. Ryan Godfrey: If I am allowed to jump in. So I know it wasn’t a question for you, but it is a great question and one that everyone should be having and we should be having this discussion, often Ryan Godfrey: The part that having studied genetic variation and evolutionary biology. The, the part of this conversation that’s most interesting to me is about Ryan Godfrey: Biodiversity and and genetic variation within these species. So we know that the wild species have very diverse genes across within populations across populations and Ryan Godfrey: I wonder just how will horticultural practices be able to replicate that. Ryan Godfrey: Are they considering it or are they wiggling that genetic variation down. And if that is the case, I start to become worried a little bit because Ryan Godfrey: Genetic variation is the fuel for natural selection. It’s what allows plants and other creatures to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Ryan Godfrey: We are experiencing changing conditions right now in a very big way. And so I want that variation. I want to preserve it. I want to bolster it in every way that I possibly can. That’s my view on on that question. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, really important aspect to it for sure, right, because the nursery practices are often around cloning. So the speed that each named cult of our is genetically identical in in most cases to the other, you know, the same species. And that’s not genetic diversity across the landscape. Emiliy Vandermeer: Right. Thank you. We have a question about garlic mustard Jennifer says that it’s abundant in her yard this year and it’s wondering if it should be harvested to eat or just pull it up. Ryan Godfrey: Go for it. Lorraine Johnson: Okay, yeah. So, um, garlic mustard is a non native plant and it’s one that suppresses the growth of other plants and in Woodlands. For example, it kind of creates monoculture. Lorraine Johnson: Of a non native species and suppresses the growth of a diversity of native plants and the understory of that woodland Lorraine Johnson: And also, you know, it grows all over the place. It’s in Lorraine Johnson: Has those white flowers. You can see it everywhere. So I really recommend. I am a big proponent of eating your weeds, so the plants. You don’t want if they are edible. Now you have to do a bit of research for each species. They’re not all edible, but Lorraine Johnson: Garlic Mustard happens to be a very edible non native plant and I highly recommend harvesting the leaves, actually, when they’re young and right about now. It’s a biennial plants. So, it produces leaves. Lorraine Johnson: The first year and then it doesn’t fire until the second year but harvest those leads when they’re young and you can Lorraine Johnson: turn them into a fabulous pesto. You can add them to soups and stews, they have an annuity garlicky flavor. Lorraine Johnson: And I would actually say that you can do both. Like you could pull it up by the root and like it’s not an either or pull it up by the roots and then Lorraine Johnson: Cut off the young leaves and eat them in some way. I’ve even cook them like spinach sometimes mixed with other things and then plant you know whatever native plants, you’re interested in in in the area that you have removed the garlic mustard from Ryan Godfrey: Mm hmm. Nothing to add. There. That’s all it eat those invasive. Emiliy Vandermeer: Yeah. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, another one actually is Japanese knotweed another Lorraine Johnson: non native plant that causes a lot of problems and you can you can eat those young shoots actually there bit rude Barbie. They’re quite to tangy. Ryan Godfrey: I’ve heard, even with that one. There’s a big sort of hubbub about Japanese knotweed having Ryan Godfrey: High levels of resveratrol which is one of those chemicals that people are very excited about for Ryan Godfrey: Life preserving anyway. It’s one of those weird things that like when I see that plant. I go like, oh my goodness, but some people would see that and go, oh my gosh, there’s a there’s a load of cash. I could sell that on the internet hundreds of dollars. Ryan Godfrey: Anyway, let’s take another question. Emiliy Vandermeer: Great. So we have a few questions about service berries. I’m going to try to just throw them all at you at the same time. The first one is, do you need to plants to pollinate with service berries. Lorraine Johnson: You know what the great thing about service berries, is that they are all over, they are all over the city. They are so close like you can plant just one service Barry and you are going to get a ton of fruit so Lorraine Johnson: Do not you know it’s so something like a Paul. Paul, where you have to plant a couple to ensure that you’re going to get fruit with service Barry, do not worry at all. Emiliy Vandermeer: Great. And the second part of this question is asking how much shade the service berries can tolerate and whether they can grow under a Norway maple. Lorraine Johnson: Uh huh. Do you want to answer, Ryan. Sorry. Well, Ryan Godfrey: I mean, my answer is going to be a very it’s depends on the species. There’s a lot of different species of service berries, some of which are grow in as forest understory some grow at forest edge. Some of them grow in more of a meadow or a Ryan Godfrey: An open kind of condition. So I would pay attention to that when you’re at the nursery pay attention to those those species, but is there one in particular that you can think of Lorraine, that would do under full shade. Lorraine Johnson: You know, I have never had. So I’ve got one growing in Lorraine Johnson: Kind of shady conditions out back and then one growing up front in very sunny conditions and I really the difference in the amount of fruit harvested is huge. Both trees are actually doing both trees are actually alive and doing all kinds of important things in terms of habitat and Lorraine Johnson: And just sort of garden value. But in terms of the Edibility Lorraine Johnson: This is the yeah Ryan Godfrey: Well, and that that reminds me of a really important point. We can back up a little bit and just remember that plants turn sunlight into Ryan Godfrey: Energy into stuff like sugar. And so it’s not surprising to me at all to find that a plant in a sunny or spot. It’s just got more energy, so it can make more sugar. Ryan Godfrey: A plant in a shady or spot is going to take a longer time to make those sugars and it’s probably not going to be able to make as many so remember our basic botany folks when you’re thinking about this. Lorraine Johnson: Now although there’s a there’s a nice comment in the chat from David, who says I grow Emily thank you’re all on the fully under Norway maple in it does well. Lorraine Johnson: There you go. Thank you, David. Ryan Godfrey: Chat to the rescue. Ryan Godfrey: Let’s take another one. Ryan Godfrey: Yes, going for, like, forever. Emiliy Vandermeer: Well, I think we’re, we have about 10 more minutes left to go. So we’ll try to Emiliy Vandermeer: answer as many questions as we can. Emiliy Vandermeer: I will try to group them together. So now we’re into the pa pa Emiliy Vandermeer: First question is about when you can harvest fruit. Lorraine Johnson: No, pop, pop, produces the, sorry. The fruit is ripe and ready for harvest quite late in the season actually like it can be it can be an early October. It can be mid October, even that you’re still it’s still good to harvest them so Lorraine Johnson: They do, they do take a long time to get to harvest ability and the issue with paws really is that other creatures squirrels and raccoons, really, like, just like pushing those pop was off the tree. They treat them like baseball’s or something. They’re just like Lorraine Johnson: And taking little bites out of them. So it’s really hard to like you have Lorraine Johnson: You might lose some of your harvest, because they’re also they get very scented Lorraine Johnson: When they’re Lorraine Johnson: Very strongly scented when they are ready to harvest and all the other creatures are smelling that too. Lorraine Johnson: So, um, yeah. Late they’re late season. Emiliy Vandermeer: Okay, great. Emiliy Vandermeer: And in terms of where they grow and fruit. We’ve had some questions about whether you could grow them in Calgary or BC and how far north, you could grow them. Ryan Godfrey: Hmm. Well, I think of it as a Carolinian species, particularly, so I think Southern Ontario. And when you get up to Toronto, you’re probably fairly close to the northern accent of its range. Ryan Godfrey: You know climate is changing. So that might change too, but unfortunately I think for that particular treat you might have to come join us down here in the Carolinians don’t Lorraine Johnson: Know, I’ve heard. And you know, I should have checked this list before this seminar, because I do keep track of any reference I hear to a paul, paul being grown outside of its native range which, as Ryan says is Southern Ontario. The Carolinian zone. Lorraine Johnson: And I am pretty sure that I have heard about Paul pause that are actually growing in protected spaces. Now Papa’s really don’t like wind Lorraine Johnson: They really like to be in protected spots. So I’ve heard about them almost as far as the and this is not like tons and tons of them. But just some someone who is growing it almost as far as Ottawa. Lorraine Johnson: But, you know, maybe that’s a fluke a fluke of a microclimate I’m pretty sure I’ve heard of some growing in Prince Edward County, again, that kind of protected, you know, in a protected spot so their native region. Lorraine Johnson: Is their native areas. The Carolinian zone. But yeah, I have heard of people pushing that Lorraine Johnson: A bit farther north and really, I guess, having a protected area and really having some success. Ryan Godfrey: Mm hmm. Ryan Godfrey: I just saw a comment pop up from Bernadette, who says the law balls and Richmond Hill. Ryan Godfrey: Has a good looking selection of native plants that look really healthy that’s that’s I’m really glad to hear that. I know. Ryan Godfrey: There’s at least one law. Law Center in Richmond Hill hill that is part of our project. So when you go there. Just make sure you Ryan Godfrey: Take a close look and and find our tag. They don’t have a panda on it, it’ll have in the zone on it. And if you’ve got that those are the gold standard absolute best native fancy, you could possibly find Emiliy Vandermeer: Great, that’s awesome to hear. And another question we have come in for Mitchell is asking, I heard that red elderberries edibles long as you cooked the berries. Is that true when it comes to the black elderberries do to cook those as well. Ryan Godfrey: Right, you Ryan Godfrey: Do have a comment about the red. I think the black are the ones that are out in the Pacific and I have there in this book, so I could look it up real quick, while you’re talking about risk. Lorraine Johnson: Yeah, and you know what, there are a lot Lorraine Johnson: That I’m really glad Lorraine Johnson: That question was asked, because I know that there are a lot of sort of, there’s a lot of conflicting information out there about some some plants. And I think the elderberries a very good example of that. The black elderberry so I would not feel comfortable weighing in on that. Lorraine Johnson: Right right now. I would say about all of these if if you are thinking about planting and elderberry let’s say I’ve just picked that one. Lorraine Johnson: Because you want to eat the berries be very Lorraine Johnson: Do some research and also make sure the nursery like discount go to a native plant nursery a specialty nursery and we’ve talked about where to find that list of Lorraine Johnson: Specialty native plant nurseries. I know the Holton master gardeners have a really good, thorough list of native plant nurseries on their website as well. So it’s a halt and master gardeners and as Ryan said nap North American, Native Plant Society does as well. Lorraine Johnson: So be sure you know ask it the nursery and tell them you want to eat this. You want to eat the fruit. So you want to be sure it is the the edible. You want to be sure of the identification of the of the particular species. Lorraine Johnson: But this is this question about, are there some that you can Lorraine Johnson: Cook and make them edible. We also did not include may apple in this in this presentation so Pato Phil and pelt Tatum. A great ground cover for shade. You see it in the woods and it produces this some fruit. Lorraine Johnson: It’s look it’s like an apple like fruit. And again, there’s like a lot of conflicting information out there around its Edibility and you know whether or not Lorraine Johnson: It’s a good idea to eat it. So a lot of sources, though, say it is okay to cook it it’s it’s fine to eat it cooked, like in a Jam or jelly Lorraine Johnson: But anyway, right have you, Lorraine Johnson: Investigation Ryan Godfrey: Yeah, I miss it. I am getting the same thing about the elderberries it’s it’s There’s conflicting stuff out there. So I would say stick to the white elderberry Ryan Godfrey: The dinner plate, you know, you go to dinner plate situation and it does seem that the flowers are safe for sure. So Ryan Godfrey: So, but, yeah, research, research, research and if if in doubt, you know, we talked about the taste test can, you know, put a little bit on your tongue or on your lips. See, wait a bit, Ryan Godfrey: taste a little bit. Wait, that’s just general good good practice. If you’re worried about this kind of thing. Ryan Godfrey: And for allergies to, like, frankly, we don’t know if any of you have allergies to a particular kind of plant no way that we can possibly predict that. So I know people with lots of allergies and that’s how they treat new foods that seems like a prudent way to go, go about it. Emiliy Vandermeer: Great. Thanks so much. And we’re at time so I’m just gonna ask Ryan. One more question and then we Emiliy Vandermeer: Can wrap things up because you are our balcony gardening guru what edible plants do really well on a balcony. Ryan Godfrey: So the nodding, while the onion for absolutely sure I did. Again, the sun chokes the Jerusalem artichokes Healy at the Super Rosa did very well in my container. Ryan Godfrey: The technique. Mom, Virginia. Ryan Godfrey: Virginia measurement, really good. I did. I’ve done some of the hiccups, which are nice to make an infusion for tea and actually just this morning. I also made an infusion of sweet grass, which grows really well in the container, too. So I would recommend any of those to get started with Emiliy Vandermeer: Okay, thank you so much. Ryan and the rain for all of your expertise on edible native plants and thank you everybody for joining us today and for staying on the line to learn more about this. Emiliy Vandermeer: Again, you can register your garden at in his own gardens calm and we’ll ask or sorry.ca and we also have a great newsletter that we send out monthly where you can get a ton more information about this. Emiliy Vandermeer: Always ENJOY YOUR WEEKEND AND THE BEAUTIFUL WEATHER. And hopefully we’ll see you on Tuesday for a final webinar. Lorraine Johnson: Thanks, everyone.