Importance of Natural Resources

Driving an Electric Car is better for the Environment: Here’s Why

Special shoutout to NordVPN for making this
video possible. More on that, in just a little bit. So as you probably guessed, today we’re
going to do a deep dive into Electric vehicles, to see if they are better or worse for the
environment. We’ve covered other aspects of driving dynamics,
performance, and cost of ownership in other videos, so be sure to subscribe and check
them out. However, today, we have to address a comment
we get all the time, that Teslas are actually worse for the environment. Running this channel, we’re always amazed
by the divide between people who love EVs and those who hate them. There are a few key points that people often
cite when arguing that electric vehicles aren’t as clean as you think. The first is that manufacturing electric vehicles
has a larger carbon footprint than gasoline cars, due to the additional need for batteries. The second reason is that mining and extracting
all the different elements like nickel and cobalt is also dangerous for the environment. The third common point of contention is that
while EVs don’t pollute as they drive, the grid from which they draw their electricity
more surely does. It’s often stated, that an electric car,
is just a coal powered car. There is merit to some of these points, and
so that’s why today, we’re going to set the record straight. To answer this question we have to look at
the carbon footprint of manufacturing electric and gasoline cars, and then the carbon footprint
throughout their respective lifecycles. Many also believe that just driving your old
car is better for the environment, than it is to manufacture a new one. So for good measure, let’s also throw in an
old used car. According to, the average vehicle
in the United States is about 11 years old. For our electric vehicle in this comparison,
we’re going with the best selling EV of 2018, the Tesla Model 3. For our gasoline car, we’re going to look
at the best selling, comparable, brand new 2018 Toyota Camry. For our used car, we’ll look at an 11-year-old,
2007 Toyota Camry. Both Camrys are V6’s to better compete with
the performance of the Model 3. Thanks to Volkswagen and Dieselgate, diesel
cars are quickly becoming persona non grata, so we’ll look at a 2014 Volkswagen Passat
TDI. Lastly for our hybrid, let’s go with the
venerable, ubiquitous, 2018 Toyota Prius. Let’s start with the carbon footprint of
manufacturing a new car. Admittedly this one is tricky, if not outright
impossible. To fully understand the complete carbon footprint
of building a new car, we’d have to consider every drop of gasoline burned to transport
components, factory power consumption and emissions, and the cascading emissions of
each sub-vendor. So it suffices to say that we’re going to
have to take some liberties and make some assumptions. So let’s be clear about this, of all the
ways we’ve seen to approximate this value, we think it makes the most sense to assess
it by vehicle weight. The larger and heavier a vehicle, the larger
it’s carbon footprint. We have three data points upon which we’ve
based our assumptions. The Citroen C1, a tiny compact car, produces
6 tons or 6000 kilograms, of CO2 equivalent to manufacture, and weighs about 800 kg. Now, what is CO2 equivalent you might be asking? Well, we usually hear about Carbon Dioxide
when talking about greenhouse gases, but there are several others, like Methane, and Hydrofluorocarbons. The climate change potential of the other
gases is weighted against carbon dioxide, and based on quantities of each, combined
to form a Carbon Dioxide equivalent score. For example, methane is 25 times more impactful
on climate change, and so 1 kg of methane, would have a carbon dioxide equivalent rating
of 25 kgs. Ok, so so our next data point is a Ford Mondeo,
a midsize sedan, that emits 17.0 tons of CO2e to manufacture, and weighs about 1,600 kgs. Lastly, a Land Rover Discovery emits 25 tons
of CO2e to manufacture and weighs about 2,200 kg. If we fit these data points on a curve and
use a best fit line, we have ourselves a crude model to approximate all the cars in our comparison. Now we know this isn’t exact, but EVs like
Teslas tend to weigh a lot, and with our model, the results, are close to what we’d expect. So we aren’t going to apply an additional
battery emission tax, we’ll allow the gross vehicle weight to account for it. We found it interesting that the emissions
levels don’t increase linearly with curb weight, but closer to a power of 2. We only have 3 data points, so we’re not
going to read too much into this, but it does make sense. As you add weight, you have more components,
more electronics, doors windows, seats, cloth, and a beefed-up chassis to support it all. Now with all that math, we have a baseline
for our day 1 emission levels. The new Camry starts at 15.5 tons of CO2e,
The Prius, at 12.5, The Passat at 16.5, and the Tesla Model 3 at 22.0. So because of the Tesla Model 3’s high curb
weight of 4000 lbs or 1800 kgs, it has polluted the most upon taking delivery. Now the old 2007 Camry has the same emissions
levels as the new Camry, but being used, we start it at 0. Based on the EPA website, we have data for
emissions in grams per mile for each vehicle. Factoring 15,000 miles a year driven, and
converting to metric tons, which is 1000 kgs, we have the following values in tons of CO2e
annually for each vehicle. Now many of our commenters have pointed out,
that people tend to only consider the emissions from burning a gallon of gasoline as if gasoline
just grew on trees. In reality, there’s an entire upstream emissions
value for gasoline, and the EPA website provides that too. So all our figures include emissions from
the tailpipe, plus all the upstream emissions to extract, refine and ship gasoline. For the Tesla, and all Evs, this is a function
of where you live, and how clean your energy grid happens to be. So we will look at Tesla ownership in the
most prominent US Market, California, and also in West Virginia, a state where coal
makes up more than 90% of its energy production. Your numbers will fall somewhere in between,
and if you live in an especially clean country, like many in Europe, your figures will be
even better than the California ones. Before we get into results, let’s talk about
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recommend the service. So on day 1, the Used Camry jumps out to an
early lead, with a 0 emissions value. Yeah it’s true, buying a used car, really
is good for the environment, but let’s see how long that lead lasts. Fast forwarding to year 5, we already see
some exciting lead changes. Now the cleanest car is the Prius, followed
closely in second by the Tesla in California. Coming in third is the used Camry, followed
by The Tesla In West Virginia, then the diesel Passat, and in dead last is the Brand new
Toyota Camry. In just a little over 3 years, a brand new
Prius pollutes less than the used Camry. The Tesla in either state, is cleaner than
Both the diesel Passat and the brand new Camry, in less than 3 years. The Tesla in California becomes the cleanest
car by about 5 and a half years. Lastly, the diesel Passat beats the used Camry
becoming the fourth cleanest by year 11 and a half. These results are pretty surprising to us
because we thought the used Camry would do much better than it ended up doing. The Tesla, shockingly, even with its big battery
pack, beats its closest rivals in less than 3 years. Just for fun, we ran the same numbers on the
best selling vehicle in the US for over three decades, the Ford F-150. With curb weights between 4000 and 5000 lbs,
we started its life at the same 22 tons of CO2e as the Tesla. With its lowest in comparison fuel efficiency
figures, it has the most significant carbon footprint. Lastly, there’s one more critical point
about Tesla owners. According to a report by Clean Technica, between
28 – 40% of EV drivers, also have solar panels. You’ve probably heard of people saying their
cars run on sunshine, and for many, its true. According to a study by Solar Innova, the
lifetime emissions per kWh produced for a photovoltaic solar panel is 72 grams. So we’re also going to add a third Tesla,
but this one is powered purely by solar panels. Again the emissions aren’t zero, because
there’s an environmental price to pay for manufacturing, transporting and installing
solar panels. However, it’s incredibly low, and unlike the
Tesla-powered by the California Grid, that takes 5.5 years to beat the Prius, the solar-powered
Tesla, wins in just 3.5 years. We discussed some of these ideas in our Hydrogen
Fuel cell vs. battery electric video, and one key point from that video is that all
the figures we’ve shown here are a snapshot of the present. But in the 15 years we extrapolated, electricity
and gasoline are heading in very different directions. Just 10 years ago, in California, only about
10% of its energy came from renewable sources, whereas today, that number is about 30%. This trend will continue, as solar and wind
get cheaper and cheaper while finding new oil sources gets harder and harder. In the case of oil, we need to revisit the
concept of E-ROI or energy return on investment. It’s like a financial investment, if you invest
$1,000 and end up making $2,000, your ROI is 2. Similarly, E-ROI is the measure of energy
created divided by the energy required to create it. Let’s look at Oil imports from 1990, which
had an E-ROI of 25. In 2005, it dropped to 18, in 2007 down to
just 12. Oil is getting harder and harder to produce
and requires more energy. All the easy to reach oil, is pretty much
gone, and what’s left is oil sands, and oil shale, which needs to be heated to separate,
before it can even be shipped to refine. Offshore drilling is also very labor intensive,
and pumping and transportation costs will also continue to rise. So in the next 15 years, the emissions from
one gallon of gasoline will continue to rise, and there’s a good chance that energy grids
will actually get cleaner in that same period. So if anything, EVs are going to be even cleaner
than we think. In case you disagree with our approach to
calculating manufacturing emissions, we’re going to share our spreadsheets and calculators,
so you can adjust it as you wish. However, the reality is, that electric vehicles
really are cleaner and better for the environment. Gasoline can never get cleaner it can only
get dirtier, so the sooner electric cars prevail, the sooner we can start cleaning up our acts. If you think that the incredible stress all
those EVs would have on the power grid would be a problem, don’t worry we have a future
video planned to cover this. We’ll link to it as soon as its available. Lastly, there’s the question of recycling
these big EV battery packs. According to Tesla, they have a partnership
providing a closed loop battery recycling program. This paper is from 2011, and much has changed. As EV sales move from hundreds of thousands
to millions, it will become increasingly lucrative to recycle old battery packs. Tesla claims that this recycling process can
reduce 70% of the emissions of mining and refining the raw materials from the source. So while studies suggest that end of life
recycling can contribute another 1-4 tons of CO2e, we aren’t going to add that to
our final numbers because those same values will reduce future EV manufacturing emissions
by a similar amount. We are going to dive into the recycling aspect
of EV Batteries in a future video. So what do you guys think, were the results
surprising? There’a lot of misinformation out there,
so please considering sharing this video on facebook, twitter and reddit. Special thanks to all our patrons on Patreon,
and if you’re new, we hope you’ll consider supporting us and become a Patron! We have many videos around the future of energy
and transportation, so we hope you’ll subscribe, and check out our other videos. We’re two-bit da Vinci, thanks for watching.

Reader Comments

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  2. That was a really good video! Surely there are many many more nuances that can be taken into account like what kind of energy was used to mine and refine the metals and plastics for the car. Here in Canada we do hydro power in a big way so we save a whole lot on CO2 emissions at our steel and aluminum refineries. Of course there is plenty of diesel being used by the heavy equipment as well but maybe Elon will make electric self driving dump trucks, bull dozers and hoes too.

    The military is clearly overlooked here though. All that effort that goes into controlling oil fields and pipeline routes is also part of the initial cost of oil based fuels. Massive loss of human life and also of course loads of carbon dioxide emissions there!

  3. yeah, the time it takes for EVs to reach minimal footbrint is just going to be INSANELY short over time. I can't wait for every state to get to +50% renewables, hopefully that's only a decade away.
    That's why Musk is dedicating most of his gigafactories to batteries: in order to reach higher renewable reliance, you need the batteries cheap and plentiful. It's another market musk has cornered.

  4. Very good analysis. Have a look at "List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions" on Wikipedia . The total emissions and per capita bar graphs are really interesting. Look at Canada and especially United Arab Emirates; total emissions very low but per capita high.

  5. This is bullshit!

    You can't say that the production of an EV produces as much CO2 as a same weight ICE car… this vid is just eye candy with bull shit data!

  6. There are a lot of vids like this on YouTube… Some id say are even better than this… Just search this title on YouTube and y'all will have other vids if this one didn't suffice… Nice videod btw

  7. One vehicle not shown in your comparison?
    A used Tesla? (Or similar)
    I assume that would be the same curve, with an origin at zero, similar to the Camry?

  8. The second life of batteries should also be considered.
    Static storage after EV use will further reduce their impact. Not only will they be useful much longer, but will, if used correctly, assist in balancing the grid, further reducing fossil use.
    AND, if final recycling is done correctly (ref Tesla Q2 Earnings presentation) the factory will use all green energy.

  9. The worst environmental impact is noxious gases that ICEs release especially in the cities. ICE cars are the main reason we have smog in the cities. Why was it ignored here?

  10. The raw material that makes batteries are shipped 3 times around Earth before they are made into batteries.
    From the place they where Mined which looks like the moons surface which you didn't show because of all the pollution that is released from earth.
    To the first factory.
    Then 2 another factory that turns them into batteries.
    Then finally they are shipped to the car plant.

    3 biggest ships in the world release more Co2 into the air/ day than all the cars on the roads in Finland does in 1 month.
    Maybe in the USA V6's are normal and V8's.
    In Europe they are NOT, over here normal is a Tiny 1 liter engine which you also left out.

    Bias much.

  11. Yet another another careful and thoughtful treatment of critical issues, issues which are often treated with far less scholarship to support myths about the ICE-based transportation system, to discredit EV technology, and obfuscate critical choices confronting our technological society. I have to conclude that the 187 negative votes could only reflect the widespread inevitable trolling around these issues, rather than any real problem with the authors' work. Great work TBD!!

  12. EV – larger upfront payment, larger savings overtime
    Gasoline car – lower initial payment, wasteful spending in maintaining moving parts and gasoline.

  13. Would have been nice if you included km or miles in addition to years. Would have been nice to see how much better my Tesla is pr km compared to my lazy ass grandpa’s Mercedes.
    Can’t complain much tho, in 3 years have I saved at least $45k on cost of ownership compared to my previous car.
    Plus, I live in Norway so my electricity is pretty clean.

  14. The one analysis I do not have, have never seen, is the one about keeping older vehicles on the road. A new F150 gets 18 MPG. My 1993 F150 get 12MPG. OK that's not as good. But what about the whole energy budget from raw materials mining and refining to EOL recycling?

    My strong suspicion is that keeping a Volvo on the road for 500,000 miles is better for the environment than scrapping and buying new every 6 years or so … What is the environmental hit for vehicle production period? … Plus, fixing and driving a well maintained older vehicle keeps money and jobs in my local community. MFG does not …

  15. This shows: An EV with solar energy is the best possible option right now.
    But not driving a car and just sharing one once in a while is still WAY better.
    And if you do: Treat it well, keep it for long. And don't buy a battery bigger than needed.

  16. Another video of this sort that is not accurate. You are not counting the emissions to produce and transport gas. From petroleum to gasoline there are so many steps and so many inefficiencies compared to generate electricity with solar, wind and use it in your car…

  17. The most important is to insure grid to be fossil free as soon as possible, on the graph you see how the hybrid outperform the EV in a fossil grid. Or produce energy ourselves (on a fossil grid). In this emergency, the only directive is for each person to insure no fossil is burned to help you in a living. And that is mostly : number of children, food and grocery, heating AC, transport. The order of priorities : less children, less meat, insulation, fewer miles in everything.

  18. I do not know why some people HATE EV so much I do not care what you drive if you want to buy an f550 and put 10000 pounds of bricks in the back then drive it around in circles so you can support big oil KNOCK YOURSELF OUT I think you should keep doing it I would rather not do that myself.

  19. I absolutely LOVE my gas guzzling supercharged 454 with dual 4 barrel carburetors that gets roughly 2 miles per gallon.

  20. EV in principle are good IMHO, but Tesla's cars (not SUV though) are just too non-spacious on the inside for a person with large height like myself (ceiling and leg room are just below what I want to accept for my car). Pity Tesla is not planning on making larger non-expensive car, IMHO because it's much more concerned with acceleration and drive range.

  21. Need to also factor the impact of processing old battery packs as they are replaced with new packs. What is the environmental impact of disposal of batteries, or reprocessing?

  22. Why dont you state the miles driven per year of the comparison?
    Your chart does not include additional energy waste from charge drain/charge waste/transmission losses/conversion losses, vehicle HVAC, battery degradation, etc. Once added in there is virtually no gap and/or an inversion to your idealized #'s.

  23. Bit… Did you account for the variance in summer/winter gasoline's? Also each company makes different gasoline blends with differing additives.
    How was this accounted for?

  24. Are you expecting that you won't have to change Batteries for tesla during all this period?
    I doubt that will work good for 15 years

  25. Comparing fuels. Gasoline vs, electricity. Your figures are highly skewed. If you wish to know how many tons of CO2 are produced by burning coal,, you take the total US tons of coal that are burned in power plants, and compare that to the total KWHs billed for. Take the beginning of the stream,, and look at the end result. ONLY. In the US in 2009,, and yes, it has changed a bit since then,, but not much. A full plug in electric caused 6 times as much CO2 as an efficient hybrid vehicle. The CO2 figures that you are using are for generator efficiency only. They do not account for water in coal, they do not account for lost methane in methane production, they do not account for transformer losses, they do not account for transmission losses. The AVERAGE transmission line in the US is more than 80 years old. The AVERAGE generator is more than 40 years old. The total thermal efficiency of coal to outlet is about 10% on a good day. I am only to video time stamp of 5:36 and you are off the rails.

  26. Good job guys. I agree and I don't need to download anything from you guys. What you said in the video, covers pretty well the reality.

  27. Not to defend WV dirty grid, but central Wisconsin is especially dependent on coal accord to EPA power profiler. And upstate New York’s power is way cleaner than California’s.

  28. How about using a state or Canadian province that predominantly uses close to 0 carbon electrical generation in your figures. Hydro or nuclear power.

  29. Both of our EVs (LEAF and Volt) run on our rooftop solar, and we wouldn't have it any other way. I've been trying to counter many of these ridiculous 'long tailpipe' arguments for several years now, and this video will go into my arsenal for the future.

  30. Shouldn’t tesla get cleaner after taking delivery? I don’t understand why tesla lines are following the rest of the gas cars.

  31. don't forget that you also need to transport the gasoline to the fule station and if it is transported on tracks that also use gasoline it's even dirtier and I am not even talking about the ships that transport it !!!!!

  32. The important point that many detractors forget is that while running a Model 3 on coal power isn't super clean, that only matters if they are run on coal for the next 10 years. Given the way most grids are moving, I'd say that would be unlikely, and any cleaning up of the grid means that not only do any new Model 3's get cleaner to run, but also all the ones already on the road.

  33. So if i get a used gas car and convert it to electric, it would pretty much beat every single one of them by a big margin :p

  34. As is usually the case with evaluations like these you are writing off fossil fuel generated electricity usage on the false presumption that you generated that power earlier. That is not how electricity works. The power you pushed onto the grid was used at that very moment by someone else (assuming there is no excess production over the whole collective). By using the grid you are part of the collective and you share the CO2 footprint it produces. As a result there is no such thing as a purely solar powered Tesla and there never will be for the same reason that you are connected to the grid: partly depending on your latitude solar panels only produce electricity during a part of the day and you require the polluting energy to get you through the rest of the day. Where I live, at 52⁰N that counts op to 90% of the year. In other words: for every 1kWh of solar power we need to generate 9kWh using an alternative method that can be controlled to match the difference between maximum and actual solar production. In practice we'll be talking (shale) gas powered generators here and thus we can conclude that 1kWh of solar power causes a CO2 emission of around 0.4kg. With the given numbers for the Tesla 3 that counts up to 1.7 metric tons CO2 per year, not zero.

  35. I am neither for or against EV's, I just want the facts and this video undeniably proves on so many counts that Tesla does not have a traceable supply chain and does not know the environmental impact of their cars.

  36. This is the most informational comparison I've seen. Looks like I'll have to buy an used Tesla after my current car dies out

  37. how about the carbon footprint of making $100K to afford one of these cars… Every purchase is an exchange of goods/services so while there is a carbon cost to manufacturing these vehiclees, there is also a carbon cost to affording one.

  38. And where are the toxic emissions and carcinogenic microparticles spitting from tailpipes directly to our lungs in higly concentrated amounts?

  39. I’m considering buying a model 3, protecting the environment it’s not even a factor at all in my decision. Drive quality, experience, longevity maintenance, and fuel cost or my main factors. Still important but less or so is the fact that it’s 100% American and pushing technology forward.

  40. When the video guy mentioned an ''old car'' i though of my peugeot junior '88. In Portugal that toyota is still an pretty new car xD

  41. We have enough oil to last well into the 22nd
    Exxon estimated in the early 2000s we would last about 80 years. After more tech and fracking, it's been adjusted dramatically.

  42. I love your videos Two Bit da Vinci and i will use this video in the future. I would like to note you did not add in oil changes(and other fluids)and replacement parts but what a good video none the less. You all do a great job digging into things.

  43. Oh and on a side note, as a Model 3 awd long range owner, i can safely say the car is 750x more fun to drive then any listed car here and also far more intelligent and safe.

  44. Plus du måste ju ladda en elbil och om alla ska ha en elbil så måste vi ha mer el och det är inte miljövänligt

  45. Don't forget the service of cars. Teslas have less movable objects and so need fewer repairs and maintenance. The older a vehicle gets, the more expenses go into keeping it working. Especially for old cars.

  46. Good video to clear this nonsense up. Even if you pick the worst case scenario for BEV and best case scenario for ICE, the combustion vehicle can't win in any circumstance. Also worth mentioning, if you buy a used EV and have low carbon electricity, you essentially have purchased a vehicle that will produce almost no emissions for it's entire period of ownership. All those old Leafs, Spark EVs and Fiat 500e's make excellent commuter cars, and are incredibly cheap second hand.

  47. Let's evaluate the actual cost of EV's in relation to the pollution of the environment shall we?

    1. Electric cars require large li-ion batteries which need to be replaced every 8 to 12 years since they lose the ability to hold a full charge.
    2. Li-ion batteries which cannot hold a full charge still continue to use electricity while "charging".
    3. Charging a li-ion battery uses electric power generated by power plants, which also pollute the environment.
    4. Electric cars use more plastics and lightweight synthetic materials to keep the weight down or they end up using more electric power.
    5. Electric cars have a limited drive time on a single charge and require more time to "fill up" compared to gas powered vehicles.

    Questions for you:
    a. How much of li-ion batteries are actually recycled and re-used and what environmental impact does that have?
    b. How much of the plastics in EV are recycled and re-used and what environmental impact does that have?
    c. How much of the mines which extract the materials used in the production of li-ion batteries are being returned to pristine condition?

    I think if they can make solar powered cars with a smaller li-ion battery and use less plastics at a reasonable price I may switch, but until that happens FORGET IT!!!!

  48. It only benefits Teslas Pocket. Have you seen the costs of Lithium Batteries, I know the life cycle is 3000 plus charges and you can run a Battery bank down 80% compared to 50% for AGM batteries , the upfront costs you need a mortgage to buy the Ion batteries, why are Electric Cars so Expensive, what’s the Payback for ordinary people.?????? Would you invest in the Stock Market where you loose money up front.

  49. This has been perfectly calculated many times. And ev only start to surpase normal cars, once they pass 100k miles, on total carbon foot print that is.
    Where you live does make a difference. For ex. Alaska is the cleanest electricity producer vs colorado wich is the worse.

  50. You didn't count the enviro cost of all of the parts for an ICE engine. Mining, manufacturing, shipping, etc…have a great cost that EVs do not.

  51. So Tesla owners think the are doing it right by not driving a V6, when they instead could get a C1 and do even better? Also figures in the example are wrong: the 2018 Prius is at 120g CO2/mile but appears in this video as 205g. This video is obviously fake. This is Tesla stock manipulation, don't use it in a science project!

  52. That’s nice , 2013 my P85 has 145k miles , it is on its second power unit , and needs a new battery pack ( down to 64%) it uses tires faster than my truck . I get 64,000 miles on my tires from C͏o͏stco on the truck , I only get about 18,000 on the Tesla. By all means my Tesla is junk because of the price of a replacement battery . The car is worth about $17 k with a battery replacement cost of $44k minus trade in value — have no idea what that value is until they remove and test . Am I happy with the vehicle—- I was as long as it was under warranty.

  53. We would still be drilling for oil even if all cars were electric and ran on green energy. Gasoline is just a byproduct from refining oil and there's a lot of uses for the rest of it such as lubricants, plastics, synthetic leathers, skin creams, etc… We'll need to find another use for the gasoline because we're just going to end up with a glut of it if all cars were electric. Preferably not burning it and releasing CO2 into the atmosphere.

  54. I wonder: as i understood your starting co2 emission is only based on the weight of the vehicle. But hasn’t the manufacturing of a ev battery a much bigger impact ?
    Im not criticizing, im just interested

    Really good video??

  55. I love reading comments from videos but these threads are cringe worthy. Praise the electric god. Secondly for those who make comments about military and oil but haven’t ever gotten within ten feet of a soldier. Shut up you have no idea about military nor what threats and concerns the US has. Iraq, dumb yes but not oil. Show me all the contracts US oil companies got in Iraq, or Afghan without oil? What about the plot of land that has been fought over more than anywhere else called Israel. No oil there. One thing that drives the boat in the Middle East conflicts, it’s called religion, beliefs. Oil hahaha, show me that US military oil mining team then we’ll talk war for oil. Beliefs is what fuels the war machine. Not resources anymore, not for quite some time.

  56. I seriously fear that recycling large quantities of batteries in the future will prove to be very tricky. This needs to be addressed more fully. At present it hardly occurs at all.

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