Importance of Natural Resources

A powerful way to unleash your natural creativity | Tim Harford

“To do two things at once
is to do neither.” It’s a great smackdown
of multitasking, isn’t it, often attributed to
the Roman writer Publilius Syrus, although you know how these things are,
he probably never said it. What I’m interested in, though,
is — is it true? I mean, it’s obviously true
for emailing at the dinner table or texting while driving or possibly
for live tweeting at TED Talk, as well. But I’d like to argue
that for an important kind of activity, doing two things at once —
or three or even four — is exactly what we should be aiming for. Look no further than Albert Einstein. In 1905, he published
four remarkable scientific papers. One of them was on Brownian motion, it provided empirical evidence
that atoms exist, and it laid out the basic mathematics
behind most of financial economics. Another one was on the theory
of special relativity. Another one was
on the photoelectric effect, that’s why solar panels work,
it’s a nice one. Gave him the Nobel prize for that one. And the fourth introduced an equation
you might have heard of: E equals mc squared. So, tell me again how you
shouldn’t do several things at once. Now, obviously, working simultaneously on Brownian motion, special relativity
and the photoelectric effect — it’s not exactly the same
kind of multitasking as Snapchatting while
you’re watching “Westworld.” Very different. And Einstein, yeah, well,
Einstein’s — he’s Einstein, he’s one of a kind, he’s unique. But the pattern of behavior
that Einstein was demonstrating, that’s not unique at all. It’s very common
among highly creative people, both artists and scientists, and I’d like to give it a name: slow-motion multitasking. Slow-motion multitasking
feels like a counterintuitive idea. What I’m describing here is having multiple projects
on the go at the same time, and you move backwards and forwards
between topics as the mood takes you, or as the situation demands. But the reason it seems counterintuitive is because we’re used to lapsing
into multitasking out of desperation. We’re in a hurry,
we want to do everything at once. If we were willing
to slow multitasking down, we might find that it works
quite brilliantly. Sixty years ago, a young psychologist
by the name of Bernice Eiduson began a long research project into the personalities
and the working habits of 40 leading scientists. Einstein was already dead, but four of her subjects won Nobel prizes, including Linus Pauling
and Richard Feynman. The research went on for decades, in fact, it continued even after
professor Eiduson herself had died. And one of the questions that it answered was, “How is it that some scientists
are able to go on producing important work right through their lives?” What is it about these people? Is it their personality,
is it their skill set, their daily routines, what? Well, a pattern that emerged was clear,
and I think to some people surprising. The top scientists
kept changing the subject. They would shift topics repeatedly during their first 100
published research papers. Do you want to guess how often? Three times? Five times? No. On average, the most
enduringly creative scientists switched topics 43 times
in their first 100 research papers. Seems that the secret
to creativity is multitasking in slow motion. Eiduson’s research suggests
we need to reclaim multitasking and remind ourselves
how powerful it can be. And she’s not the only person
to have found this. Different researchers, using different methods
to study different highly creative people have found that very often
they have multiple projects in progress at the same time, and they’re also far more likely
than most of us to have serious hobbies. Slow-motion multitasking
among creative people is ubiquitous. So, why? I think there are three reasons. And the first is the simplest. Creativity often comes when you take
an idea from its original context and you move it somewhere else. It’s easier to think outside the box if you spend your time clambering
from one box into another. For an example of this,
consider the original eureka moment. Archimedes — he’s wrestling
with a difficult problem. And he realizes, in a flash, he can solve it, using
the displacement of water. And if you believe the story, this idea comes to him
as he’s taking a bath, lowering himself in, and he’s watching
the water level rise and fall. And if solving a problem
while having a bath isn’t multitasking, I don’t know what is. The second reason
that multitasking can work is that learning to do one thing well can often help you do something else. Any athlete can tell you
about the benefits of cross-training. It’s possible to cross-train
your mind, too. A few years ago, researchers took
18 randomly chosen medical students and they enrolled them in a course
at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, where they learned to criticize
and analyze works of visual art. And at the end of the course, these students were compared
with a control group of their fellow medical students. And the ones who had taken the art course had become substantially better
at performing tasks such as diagnosing diseases of the eye
by analyzing photographs. They’d become better eye doctors. So if we want to become
better at what we do, maybe we should spend some time
doing something else, even if the two fields
appear to be as completely distinct as ophthalmology and the history of art. And if you’d like an example of this, should we go for a less intimidating
example than Einstein? OK. Michael Crichton, creator
of “Jurassic Park” and “E.R.” So in the 1970s,
he originally trained as a doctor, but then he wrote novels and he directed
the original “Westworld” movie. But also, and this is less well-known, he also wrote nonfiction books, about art, about medicine,
about computer programming. So in 1995, he enjoyed
the fruits of all this variety by penning the world’s
most commercially successful book. And the world’s most commercially
successful TV series. And the world’s most commercially
successful movie. In 1996, he did it all over again. There’s a third reason why slow-motion multitasking
can help us solve problems. It can provide assistance
when we’re stuck. This can’t happen in an instant. So, imagine that feeling
of working on a crossword puzzle and you can’t figure out the answer, and the reason you can’t is because
the wrong answer is stuck in your head. It’s very easy —
just go and do something else. You know, switch topics, switch context, you’ll forget the wrong answer and that gives the right answer space
to pop into the front of your mind. But on the slower timescale
that interests me, being stuck is a much more serious thing. You get turned down for funding. Your cell cultures won’t grow,
your rockets keep crashing. Nobody wants to publish you fantasy novel
about a school for wizards. Or maybe you just can’t find the solution
to the problem that you’re working on. And being stuck like that
means stasis, stress, possibly even depression. But if you have another exciting,
challenging project to work on, being stuck on one is just an opportunity
to do something else. We could all get stuck sometimes,
even Albert Einstein. Ten years after the original,
miraculous year that I described, Einstein was putting together the pieces
of his theory of general relativity, his greatest achievement. And he was exhausted. And so he turned to an easier problem. He proposed the stimulated
emission of radiation. Which, as you may know, is the S in laser. So he’s laying down the theoretical
foundation for the laser beam, and then, while he’s doing that, he moves back to general relativity,
and he’s refreshed. He sees what the theory implies — that the universe isn’t static. It’s expanding. It’s an idea so staggering, Einstein can’t bring himself
to believe it for years. Look, if you get stuck and you get the ball rolling
on laser beams, you’re in pretty good shape. (Laughter) So, that’s the case
for slow-motion multitasking. And I’m not promising
that it’s going to turn you into Einstein. I’m not even promising it’s going
to turn you into Michael Crichton. But it is a powerful way
to organize our creative lives. But there’s a problem. How do we stop all of these projects
becoming completely overwhelming? How do we keep all these ideas
straight in our minds? Well, here’s a simple solution,
a practical solution from the great American
choreographer, Twyla Tharp. Over the last few decades, she’s blurred boundaries,
mixed genres, won prizes, danced to the music of everybody,
from Philip Glass to Billy Joel. She’s written three books. I mean, she’s a slow-motion
multitasker, of course she is. She says, “You have to be all things. Why exclude? You have to be everything.” And Tharp’s method for preventing all of these different
projects from becoming overwhelming is a simple one. She gives each project
a big cardboard box, writes the name of the project
on the side of the box. And into it, she tosses DVDs
and books, magazine cuttings, theater programs, physical objects, really anything that’s provided a source
of creative inspiration. And she writes, “The box means I never
have to worry about forgetting. One of the biggest fears
for a creative person is that some brilliant idea will get lost because you didn’t write it down
and put it in a safe place. I don’t worry about that. Because I know where to find it. It’s all in the box.” You can manage many ideas like this, either in physical boxes
or in their digital equivalents. So, I would like to urge you to embrace the art
of slow-motion multitasking. Not because you’re in a hurry, but because you’re in no hurry at all. And I want to give you one final example, my favorite example. Charles Darwin. A man whose slow-burning
multitasking is so staggering, I need a diagram to explain it all to you. We know what Darwin
was doing at different times, because the creativity researchers
Howard Gruber and Sara Davis have analyzed his diaries
and his notebooks. So, when he left school, age of 18, he was initially interested in two fields, zoology and geology. Pretty soon, he signed up to be
the onboard naturalist on the “Beagle.” This is the ship
that eventually took five years to sail all the way around
the southern oceans of the Earth, stopping at the Galápagos,
passing through the Indian ocean. While he was on the “Beagle,”
he began researching coral reefs. This is a great synergy
between his two interests in zoology and geology, and it starts to get him thinking
about slow processes. But when he gets back from the voyage, his interests start to expand
even further: psychology, botany; for the rest of his life, he’s moving backwards and forwards
between these different fields. He never quite abandons any of them. In 1837, he begins work
on two very interesting projects. One of them: earthworms. The other, a little notebook
which he titles “The transmutation of species.” Then, Darwin starts
studying my field, economics. He reads a book
by the economist Thomas Malthus. And he has his eureka moment. In a flash, he realizes how species
could emerge and evolve slowly, through this process
of the survival of the fittest. It all comes to him,
he writes it all down, every single important element
of the theory of evolution, in that notebook. But then, a new project. His son William is born. Well, there’s a natural
experiment right there, you get to observe
the development of a human infant. So immediately,
Darwin starts making notes. Now, of course, he’s still working
on the theory of evolution and the development of the human infant. But during all of this, he realizes he doesn’t really know
enough about taxonomy. So he starts studying that. And in the end, he spends eight years
becoming the world’s leading expert on barnacles. Then, “Natural Selection.” A book that he’s to continue working on
for his entire life, he never finishes it. “Origin of Species” is finally published 20 years after Darwin set out
all the basic elements. Then, the “Descent of Man,”
controversial book. And then, the book about
the development of the human infant. The one that was inspired
when he could see his son, William, crawling on the sitting room
floor in front of him. When the book was published,
William was 37 years old. And all this time, Darwin’s working on earthworms. He fills his billiard room with earthworms
in pots, with glass covers. He shines lights on them,
to see if they’ll respond. He holds a hot poker next to them,
to see if they move away. He chews tobacco and — (Blows) He blows on the earthworms
to see if they have a sense of smell. He even plays the bassoon
at the earthworms. I like to think of this great man when he’s tired, he’s stressed, he’s anxious about the reception
of his book “The Descent of Man.” You or I might log into Facebook
or turn on the television. Darwin would go
into the billiard room to relax by studying the earthworms intensely. And that’s why it’s appropriate
that one of his last great works is the “Formation of Vegetable Mould
Through The Action of Worms.” (Laughter) He worked upon that book for 44 years. We don’t live in the 19th century anymore. I don’t think any of us could sit on our creative or scientific
projects for 44 years. But we do have something to learn
from the great slow-motion multitaskers. From Einstein and Darwin
to Michael Crichton and Twyla Tharp. The modern world seems
to present us with a choice. If we’re not going to fast-twitch
from browser window to browser window, we have to live like a hermit, focus on one thing
to the exclusion of everything else. I think that’s a false dilemma. We can make multitasking work for us, unleashing our natural creativity. We just need to slow it down. So … Make a list of your projects. Put down your phone. Pick up a couple of cardboard boxes. And get to work. Thank you very much. (Applause)

Reader Comments

  1. Biggest takeaway from this video is something that I think we are all aware of anyway. Enjoy life. Yes, it sounds simple, but so few people do. Simply move towards things that you enjoy, and distance yourself from things that you don't. The more you enjoy something, the 'better' you become at it. The more things you enjoy, the more similarities you can see across all of those subjects. Let's try to stop looking for that holy grail meaning for existence, because there isn't one. No one and nothing matters. Only your relative enjoyment and happiness does. The happy individual is a powerful person indeed. Perhaps this is why the media would rather you live in fear, because a scared and uncreative populus is an easy to control one. Just my two cents.

  2. Indeed, exposing yourself to various things is good for your brain. Life is an ongoing process of change and should be treated as such. Getting stuck at repeating the same things will absolutely kill your creativity. Thank you for this great talk!

  3. It's so refreshing to hear this. Since I was a kid I've been called out for starting projects and not finishing them and at the time I felt guilty about this. Now, thinking back it it was the natural thing to do since I am a heavy slow multitasker and there was no way to finish ALL the things I started, even though in the end the things I've learnt some way or the other stayed in my life.
    It's most difficult for me though to choose how I spend my time and to compromise with something now it's become a work of observation to see where I naturally lean on.

  4. I agree with expanding your knowledge with the various subject, in this way you can see your profession from a different perspective, in this way you can/might innovate.
    But I am little confused about the definition of Multitasking he provided, his definition of multitasking seems like expanding knowledge.
    What I know about Multitasking is doing more than one thing at a time, such as watching tv and also reading the book (worst idea).
    Seems like Multitasking itself is a very confusing subject. Someone should make a book on explaining multitasking, such as how many types of multitasking are there, which type of multitasking is good, which one is bad, and etc. etc.

  5. In a world that is fast paced and full of opportunity, this is the future of thinking to maximize your potential

  6. "The top scientists… switched topics in their first 100 papers on average 43 times."
    Now I have to ask, is this slow-motion multitasking or staying curious?

  7. right, because Einstein probably wrote one of those four papers with his right hand, the second one with the left, the third with with his right foot, and the fourth with his left foot – SIMULTANEOUSLY.
    sorry but the multitasking analogy isn't applicable at all.
    please don't make that term less useful by muddying its definition.
    other than that, I wholeheartedly agree with the message of the talk. just don't call it multitasking or any variation thereof – it got nothing to do with it.

  8. Slow motion multi-tasking is secret to creativity. Best minds keep changing the subject. Have multiple projects on the go, and switch at will between them. Creativity is taking an idea from its original context and moving it somewhere else. You have to be all things, don’t exclude anything. Don’t be in a hurry to be creative.

  9. Fine inspiration, but he didn't tell you how to manage Intrinsic motivation and Extrinsic Motivation to avoid the Overjustification Effect, which can ruin your goals.

  10. If you had a functional system you could just focus on one thing at a time, but because people have to constantly look for way around the bush to find something that eventually works that can eventually sustain their cost of living, what really happens is you end up with many unfinished or decreased quality projects. In the case of Einstein, he jumped around because it was one discover after another to which he felt he could prove. I'm sure he also had a stack of other ideas he was also attempting to prove. Nevertheless, it's a good talk but I believe the outcome is a bunch of unfinished or unpolished projects.

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  12. This can also be viewed as procrastination theory or the exploration of curiosity, can you be detached from the outcome of each event?

  13. Basically, good time management, taking note of every idea that came up, and organization.

    I work on my passion projects for 15-60 mins. when I got bored in rewriting my notes or studying for an exam. My passion project could be on photography, voice training, writing a book, or film making. When inspiration hits during a lecture, I took note of it and then work on it for at most 10 mins then go back to my main thing.

  14. 5:50 – cross training. That's much better verbiage than multi-tasking for this video. Inigio Montoya "I do not think that word means what you think it means."

  15. Sorry, Tim but that is seriously reaching to redefine multitasking. Multitasking is not multi-projecting. Suggesting that solving a problem while you're taking a bath is like solving a problem while sitting in a chair is ridiculous. Multitasking is distraction. Multiprojecting requires your ability to switch your focus from thing to thing BUT you're still focused on the ONE thing intently while you're working on it be that in a chair or a bathtub or running down the street.

  16. I have been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder and add. If I didn’t live where I had several projects going at once, I would not function as a person in society. I am so glad someone has taken something I’ve been doing for survival without even being aware of it, and understanding the purpose and potential value behind it. I have an idea that if you could understand mental illness, you can take bits of each diagnosis and put the treatments together and get the information you need to be able to solve anything a person can mentally suffer, like a manual. Instead of looking at mental illnesses like they are mutations, I would understand what went wrong and how to fix it and then prevent it from happening again. If people are only told they are doing something wrong, when are they going to learn what is correct?

  17. I do not believe this man sees the data the way I do. I see Sequential Mono Tasking versus Simultaneous "Slow-wave" Multi-Tasking.

    Like Alan Watts said, "Chop wood, carry water."

    Pretty sure Buddha would have laughed at an initiate carrying water, while chopping wood: "Hah, more efficient to Multi-Task?"

  18. I have been working on multiple things throughout the past year or more and I can testify it does bring a lot into each activity. What I also do are things which are very different in nature, so that makes everything richer. It's important to learn to let go of things for a little bit and then come back to them. Learning to completely let go (even if it is only for a few hours or a day) and not to drop things is key. But it also happens when you have found activities which you love. Then it makes you want to develop in that direction, to bring new perspectives in each, and also means you won't drop them when you haven't worked on them for a while. So, I'm waiting for my Nobel price now ^'-'^

  19. But if you work at one thing at a time, isn't it monotasking? For example, you work on project A for 4 hours straight, then work on project B for the next 4 hours, isn't it's monotasking? Isn't multitasking is your right hand work at project A and your left hand work at project A?

  20. Inspiring. This man really puts a new twist on creativity. Encouraging us to never give up on our creative ideas and endeavors.

  21. Епт! Это так мотивирует! А мне мамка говорила «выбери уже одно, чем хочешь заниматься!»

  22. ?Multitasking is bad for him too, but slow motion multitasking is great mainly to get out of stress and stuck situation of a project. Great intuition ?

  23. I can see what he means about what constitutes multi-tasking… I think ha! I'm only amateur, but it's more than just skipping around from one project or endeavor to another. It's much more. When a creative person like Darwin goes from one subject to the next does not mean he ignored the other subjects, as those subjects were also in his creative process. The subjects were not exactly left behind until he returned to them because he really never left them. I wish he would've made that more clear, yet just my amateur view. I write, and I'm a musician, and if I'm writing fiction it doesn't mean that I'm not writing music, and vice versa. When I go away from my works, like ride my bicycle to get groceries, I really haven't left things I'm working on behind.

  24. I love the idea and this talk. Yet all the slow motion multitaskers he mentions are highly intelligent. You have to be intelligent to be able to find these associations. As lovely as it sounds, I doubt I would benefit from this method because I'm average tops.

  25. This is such an interesting concept. It’s seems counter intuitive yet also completely relevant. Great stuff!

  26. Thanks Tim, for giving it a name and in a way legitimising as well as deconstructing whats going on for people like me too. Far from the spectrum of darwin and einstein, but the process is the same and in wake of all the actions there are many things i did over the last 23 years of my professional career in multi-disciplinary design. People would keep questioning "so what is your core competency?"…and that question persisted even though across disciplines i won awards and the big projects..but only that i chose to do something else after that. I would be happy to share my journey with you in detail as a mail incase you would like to study a design person whos constantly engaged in slow motion multi-tasking….throughout the talk it felt like you were talking about me..:) apart from the fact that ive not achieved any of the greatness, but the process is the same. my work for your reference.. and a few more new things coming up…all with a small team of 2-5 people working with me.

  27. The subject of my torture is the element of my creativity,
    I can't quit that which disturbs my sanity,
    For without it,
    I'm just a sick woman with no signs or symptoms.

    It's a sad thing to be captive of that which makes you great,
    It's a drug of choice, when you have no choice,
    And so I find ways to support my addiction ,
    By dwelling in misery,
    And when there is none,
    I create it.

    Most of the time it gets me nowhere,
    And other times I'm on the ledge,
    My creativity hits jackpot,
    Sometime so quickly that it overrides me,
    And I can't get it all out quick enough,
    Leaving me behind with many unfinished clauses.

    Writing is my greatest weapon of self harm,
    For it is only when I write that I'm not myself,
    This brutal force hijacks my brain and wrecks havoc on paper.
    I find myself in a literature euphoria,
    So much so that sometimes when I read my own work,
    I have no recollection of ever writing it.

    For jp

  28. I always said that multitasking is a myth. That doing several things at the same time is doing each thing poorly. BUT , "slow motion multi-tasking"… has made a believer of me. Awesome!

  29. Creativity is one of the most amazing gifts that can ever be endowed to an individual and yet is still looked upon by some people as a useless enterprise to this day. In my experience, I think I've always been a pretty creative person for as long as I can remember. Not remarkably or brilliantly creative but I still tended to do things my way a lot of the time. Even as early as nursery school, I remember the other kids and I would be given pictures to colour in every day and one day we were each given a picture of a giraffe and I decided to colour its patches in red and my teacher looked over my shoulder and said, "No Alex, a giraffe's patches are brown, not red" and there was me scribbling as hard as I could with a brown pencil to correct my "mistake". I guess I was too young at the time or relatively indifferent to the whole thing to raise this with my parents, like I more or less took my teacher's word for it and just got on with it to get her off my back but in hindsight, I think it just goes to show that even the authority figures in a child's life back then in the nineties weren't above trying to stomp on their creativity and quash their imagination. It's a sad reality that some people continue to discourage this way of thinking even when it could pave the way for new ideas and developments which is what society actually needs to move forward and progress. It may sound like I've dug a little too deep there over a little "transgression" I made years ago but I think, as a case in point, it still holds up when it comes to talking about creativity and how the education system does everything in its power to stifle it.

  30. In contemporary America multi-tasking is a buzz word, most used like a mallet to beat employees down and load more and more work on them. The phrase came into our culture from IT world, where processors would multi-task. Even processors have limited ability to multitask, they only do one thing at a time but do it so fast that it appears to us as multi-tasking. Do one thing at a time and there is time enough in a day to do every thing. Try to do two things at once and there isn't time enough in a year to do it. From the pen of a great creative mind "Lord Chesterfield" (1740's). Speaker is using the exceptions to prove his point. How many of his audiences have the intellect of Charles Darwin or Einstein. What he is really talking about is being a multi-faceted person, with wide ranging interests, using insights gained in one area in another. Your opinion is warmly welcomed.

  31. This is very in line with the book Rest: Why You Get More Done When You Work Less by Alex Soojung-Kim Pang. Great book, highly recommend.

  32. I think I have heard of this. It was a question on one of those "Do you have adult ADHD?" quizes you find attached to advertisements for pharma.

    "Do you have trouble focusing on one task, jumping from one to the next but never completing any of the things you set out to achieve?"

    So basically I've learned that Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, Twila Tharpe, and Michael Crighton probably could have used some Ritalin.

  33. The evolution is an old idea from hes grandfather who also was a freemason, we are much more then that ! We are divine spiritual relatives

  34. Brilliant! A compelling and concise delivery. Pragmatic, practical and accessible. Thoroughly enjoyable.

  35. And great withboxes for not forgetting all the good ideas and inspirations that pops up all the time when you start slow motion multitasking-dreaming

  36. I cannot stop exploring new areas. I studied wireless networks, economics of water resources, human capital, business models, social commerce, quality of service, and now I am stying innovation. but my productivity is not much.

  37. Was with him until he brought up Darwin. The discoveries in molecular biology over the past 15 years killed off Darwinian evolution. Only delusional people still believe in that debunked theory.

  38. Multitasking is doing multiple things at single time..but none of scientist and artist are doing that they are just switching between tasks..

  39. TEDTalks have a lot of people who've studied creativity, but who don't actually engage in creative endeavors to a large extent… Where are the artists and musicians who make their living from their creativity?? Let's hear from them about creativity.

  40. I think you need to be a bit careful here. Multitasking is indeed beneficial as the speaker claims. But on what occasion? As he also admits, his examples are different from typical multitasking actions like scrolling SNS while writing an essay. It definitely harms your brain and take concentration away from you. So when is multitasking beneficial? His examples are more like switching projects, instead of switching actions/tasks. And coming up an idea while taking a bath is not, I think, multitasking. It gives brain a space for creativity, doing nothing. Multitasking doesn’t. On the contrary, it keeps giving information to the brain so that the brain can’t rest and hence lacks creative space. So I think he needs to be more clear about when multitasking is good/when it’s not and on what level it works.

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