Importance of Natural Resources

2019 UC Berkeley Grad Slam Competition Program Information


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(PLEASE STAND BY FOR EVENT TO BEGIN.) (PLEASE STAND BY FOR EVENT TO
BEGIN.)>>GOOD AFTERNOON, EVERYBODY.
AND WELCOME TO UC BERKELEY’S 2019 GRAD SLAM
COMPETITION. FOR THOSE WHO DON’T KNOW ME, MY NAME IS
FIONA DOYLE AND I’M THE VICE PROVOST FOR GRADUATE
STUDIES AND DEAN OF THE GRADUATE DIVISION. I’M
PARTICULARLY PLEASED THAT TODAY’S EVENT BY
COINCIDENCE, IT ACTUALLY IS HAPPENING DURING GRADUATE AND
PROFESSIONAL STUDENT APPRECIATION WEEK. SO IT’S A
LOVELY WAY TO APPRECIATE ALL OF OUR GRADUATE
STUDENTS ON THIS CAMPUS. SO I WOULD EVERYBODY
WHO IS NOT A GRADUATE STUDENT HERE IN A ROUND OF
APPRECIATION FOR ALL THE GRAD STUDENTS WHO ARE HERE.
(APPLAUSE) .
I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO EXTEND SEEN SEAR
APPRECIATION FOR MAKING THIS AUDITORIUM AVAILABLE TO
US. IT’S A STEP UP FROM THE ROOM THAT WE HAVE IN
THE GRADUATE DIVISION. AND LAST YEAR WE ACTUALLY
COULDN’T ACCOMMODATE ALL OF THE AUDIENCE. SO WE
NEEDED SOME BIGGER DIGS. THIS IS A LOVELY PLACE TO
HOLD THIS. THE ONLY DOWNSIDE OF HAVING IT HERE IS
THAT I HAVE TO ASK YOU NOT TO EAT OR DRINK OTHER
THAN WATER WHILE YOU’RE HERE BECAUSE WE DON’T WANT
TO RUIN LOVELY FURNISHINGS. I KNOW YOU CAN MANAGE
THAT. SO THE GRAD SLAM COMPETITION WAS
LAUNCHED FIVE YEARS AGO BY PIERRE TCHETGEN PRESIDENT JANET NAPOLITANO. AND
THE PURPOSE IS TO SHARPEN THE
STUDENT’S DIFFERENT ASPECT ASPECTS OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL
SKILLS, NAMELY THE ABILITY TO EXPRESS MANY A VERY
CLEAR, SUCCINCT WAY TO A GENERAL AUDIENCE WHAT
THEY’RE DOING. MANY OF YOU WHO USED ARE HAVING
CONVERSATIONS WITH GRADUATE STUDENTS WILL KNOW THAT THEY CAN
GIVE YOU INCREDIBLEY INCREDIBLEY DETAILED DISCUSSIONS ON WHAT
IT IS THAT THEY’RE DOING. I REMEMBER WHEN I ASKED
MY MOTHER TO PROOFREAD MY DISSERTATION, SHE
SAID — AND SHE WAS VERY GOOD AT DOING THIS BECAUSE
SHE HAD NO IDEA WHAT IT WAS ABOUT. SHE READ EACH
WORD VERY CAREFULLY AND FOUND LOTS OF TYPOS THAT
EVERYBODY ELSE HAD OMITTED. AND SHE SAID, OH, THAT’S
INTERESTING, ISN’T IT? OR SOMETHING ALONG THOSE LINES
BECAUSE I DIDN’T HAVE THE SKILL OF EXPRESSING TO HER
IN THREE MINUTES WHAT IT WAS THAT I WAS DOING. THE COMPETITION IS A THREE
THREE-MINUTE DISCUSSION OF WHAT PEOPLE ARE DOING.
THE WAY THAT THE SYSTEM WIDE COMPETITION WORKS IS
THAT EACH CAMPUS IS ASKED TO IDENTIFY A FINALIST AND
OUR FINALIST IS IDENTIFIED IN TWO DIFFERENT ROUNDS.
SO EARLIER IN THE YEAR, ALL THE GRADUATE STUDENTS AT
BERKELEY WERE INVITED TO SUBMIT A VIDEO, A THREE-
THREE-MINUTE VIDEO, PROVIDE ING THIS GENERAL — TALK
FOR A GENERAL AUDIENCE ON WHAT THEY’RE DOING. AND
THEIR SUBMISSIONS WERE JUDGED BY THE FACULTY SUB
SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE GRADUATE COUNCIL ON PROFESSIONAL
DEVELOPMENT. AND I’M SURE THAT JOB WAS INCREDIBLEY
DIFFICULT. ANDIDE LIKE TO ACKNOWLEDGE NOW ELENA CON
CONUS, THE CHAIR OF THAT GROUP. SHE’S ALSO THE VICE
CHAIR OF THE GRADUATE COUNCIL FOR LEADING THE
FACULTY IN THAT DIFFICULT UNDERTAKING.
AND THAT YIELDED THE TEN FINALISTS FROM WHOM
WE’RE GOING TO HEAR THIS AFTERNOON, ALL SITTING IN
THE FRONT ROW. THE COMPETITORS WERE MOTIVATED BY
PRIZE MONEY AS WELL AS THE GLORY.
(LAUGHTER). AND THE PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
. BUT IT’S NOT INCONSEQUENTIAL, LET’S SAY, IN
PROVIDEING THE MOTIVATEING FACTOR. SO ALL OF
OUR COMPETITORS TODAY WILL RECEIVE AT LEAST $100, AND
THEN WE WILL HAVE THREE WINNERS, PEOPLE’S CHOICE
FIRST PLACE, FINALIST FINALIST, EACH OF WHOM WILL
RECEIVE $750, $1,000 AND $3,000 RESPECTIVELY. THE FIRST-
PLACE WINNER WILL REPRESENT BERKELEY AT THE UC
-WIDE COMPETITION NEXT MONTH. THAT’S MAY 10TH IN SAN
FRANCISCO COMPETING FOR ADDITIONAL PRIZE MONEY. SO
THERE’S A GOOD THING GOING.
SO HOW ARE WE GOING TO IDENTIFY THE LUCKY WINNER
WINNERS TODAY? WELL, IT’S NOT GOING TO BE LUCK.
IT’S ON THE BASIS OF CAREFUL EVALUATION OF THEIR
PRESENTATIONS. AND SO IT’S NOW MY PLEASURE TO
INTRODUCE TO YOU THE PANEL OF JUDGES WHO HOST VERY HAVE THE
VERY, VERY DIFFICULT TASK OF ACTUALLY MAKING THE
EVALUATION. AND I WOULD ASK OUR JUDGES IF EACH OF
YOU COULD STAND WHEN I INTRODUCE YOU . MANY ALPHABET IN ALPHABETIC
ALPHABETICAL ORDER, WE HAVE BJ RN HARTMANN WHO IS
THE FACULTY DIRECTOR OF THE JACOBS INSTITUTE FOR
DESIGN INNOVATION AND ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE.
AND WE HAVE LAWRENCE JOHNSON WHO EARNED HIS BS
IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION HERE IN ’72 AND HE’S THE
CHAIR OF THE GRADUATE DIVISION’S EXECUTIVE ADVISORY
COMMITTEE. AND OUR THIRD JUDGE IS WENDY
TOKUDA WHO IS A FORMER KPIX NEWS ANCHOR AND A
SPEECH COACH. SO PLEASE JOIN ME IN THANKING OUR
COACHES. (APPLAUSE) THEY’RE VOLUNTEERING THEIR TIME
TO DO THIS DIFFICULT JOB, AND I’M SO
GRATEFUL TO THEM FOR THAT. AND THEN IN ADDITION TO THIS
PANEL, YOU ALSO ARE JUDGES. I MENTIONED THAT THERE
IS A PEOPLE’S CHOICE PRIZE AND YOU, THE AUDIENCE
MEMBERS, WILL BE THE JUDGES OF THAT. WE WILL — AT
THE END OF THE PRESENTATION, WE WILL BE GIVING
YOU THE INFORMATION ON HOW YOU VOTE FOR THE PEOPLE’S
CHOICE. WE’RE NOT DOING IT NOW BECAUSE YOU NEED TO
HEAR ALL THE PRESENTATIONS BEFORE YOU CAN
FAIRLY EVALUATE THEM ALL.
BUT I WOULD ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE ANY NOTES ON
YOUR PROGRAMS OR WHEREVER TO MAKE NOTES ABOUT THE
DIFFERENT PRESENTATIONS SO THAT YOU CAN MAKE AN
INFORMED VOTE FOR THE PEOPLE ‘S CHOICE.
WITH THAT I’M I’M NOW PLEASED TO INTRODUCE TO YOU
AND WELCOME BACK TO BERKELEY LAST YEAR’S WINNER DR.
DR. JOE CHARBONNET. NOT ONLY DID HE WIN THE CAMPUS
COMPETITION BUT HE ALSO WON THE SYSTEMWIDE
COMPETITION WHICH MEANS THIS YEAR BERKELEY IS THE
DEFENDING CHAMPION. NO PRESSURE ON THE CONTEST.
(LAUGHTER) BUT JOE COMPLETED HIS PH.D. IN
2018 IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND
ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING HERE. BASICALLY JUST THROUGH
THAT WALL AND A BIT UP UP. AND HIS DISSERTATION
RESEARCH FOCUSED ON DEVELOPING TECHNOLOGYIES TO RE
MOVE TOXIC CONTAMINANTS FROM STORM WATER. HE ALSO
RECEIVEED HIS MASTER’S DEGREE IN CIVIL AND ENVIRONMENT
AL ENGINEERING HERE AND HIS BACHELOR’S DEGREE FROM GEORGIA TECH. HE’S
NOW A SCIENCE AND POLICY ASSOCIATE AT THE GREEN
SCIENCE POLICY INSTITUTE EXEMPLIFYING ONE OF THE
OTHER THINGS WE CARE ABOUT IN THE GRADUATE DIVISION
WHICH IS PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR FOLLOWING A
VARIED RANGE OF DIFFERENT CAREERS.
SO JOE HAS VERY KINDLY JOINED US TO SHARE HIS
REFLECTIONS ON THE VALUE OF THE EVENT, WHAT IT MEANT
TO HIM AND HIS PERSPECTIVE A YEAR LATER. SO WELCOME
BACK, JOE. (APPLAUSE) >>Speaker: THANK
YOU VERY MUCH, FIONA. I WILL START OUT BY SAYING I
RECOGNIZE THE IRONY OF HAVING AN ADDITIONAL SPEAKER AT AN
EVENT. SO I’LL BE QUICK QUICK. AS FIONA MENTIONED, MY
CLAIM TO FAME AROUND HERE IS BEING THE DEFENDING
CHAMPION FOR THIS EVENT BUT IN THE MEAN TIME, I’VE
ACTUALLY FINISHED MY PH.D. SO I’M TEMPTED TO JUST
TALK TO THE GRAD STUDENTS ABOUT THE SUBLIME
ECSTASY THAT COMES FROM FINALLY, FINALLY BEING DONE WITH
YOUR PH.D.! (APPLAUSE)
BUT INSTEAD I WILL TALK ABOUT SOMETHING THAT
SEEMS A LITTLE BIT MORE SALIENT AND THAT CAME UP A
LOT DURING MY GRAD SLAM EXPERIENCE LAST YEAR AND
THAT WAS THIS QUESTION OF WHAT IS THE VALUE OF A
PITCH CONTEST FOR STUDENTS WHO AREN’T SCIENTISTS OR
ENGINEERS. NOW, I’M REALLY EXCITEED TO GET TO KNOW
THIS YEAR THE CONTEST ANTS ANT ASSISTANTS FROM THE SOCIAL
SCIENCES AND THE HUMANITYIES. BUT IN MY EXPERIENCE
LAST YEAR WITH FELLOW COMPETITORS FROM BOTH FIELDS I
FOUND THEY OFTEN DESCRIBED AND FELT FEW AND OUT OF
PLACE IN THIS KIND OF FORUM. I AM A HARD-CORE NERDY
ENGINEER. I AM PASSIONATE ABOUT THE MAVIERRE’S
STOKES EQUATION. I PROPOSED TO WIFE USING A FIRST
EDITION OF NEWTON’S P PRINTIPIA. IT’S SO COOL THAT
PEOPLE ARE WILLING TO PAY A LOT OF MONEY FOR THE
EXPERTISE THAT I LOVE TO PROVIDE. BUT I’M NOT CONVINCED
THAT JUST BECAUSE SOMEONE ELSE CAN MAKE MONEY OFF
OF WHAT I DO IT MAKE MAKES MY STUDIES ANY MORE VALUE
ABLE OR MY PASSION ANY LESS SINCERE THAN SOMEONE WHO IS
STUDYING, SAY, THE BUTTE OF AN ITERATETIVE POEM OR
HOW LIBRARYIES PROVIDE COMMUNITY SPACES FOR THINGS LIKE
MARRIAGE PROPOSALS. (LAUGHTER)
I THINK THAT ALL THAT THIS SAYS IS THAT I’M
QUITE LUCKY THAT MY HEART HAPPENED TO LIE IN A
TECHNICAL FIELD. I THINK WE NEED TO ABOLISH THIS
MYTH THAT THE VALUE OF PITCH CONTESTS IS THAT THEY
PREPARE STUDENTS FOR A CHANCE ELEVATEOR RIDE WITH A
VENTURE CAPITALIST WHO HAS MORE MONEY THAN IDEAS.
THE DEAN MIGHT NOT LIKE HEARING THIS.
(LAUGHTER). BUT I THINK EVEN IN THE HALLOWED
HAULS HERE AT BERKELEY OPPORTUNITIES LIKE THAT
ARE VANISHING RARE. I THINK THE REAL VALUE OF PITCH
CONTESTS, ESPECIALLY FOR STUDENTS WHO MAY NOT BE
INCLINED TO ENTREPRENEUR ENTREPRENEURSHIP OR MAY NOT BE
IN A TECHNICAL FIELD IS BECAUSE THEY TEACH US TO
CONNECT WITH JUST NORMAL PEOPLE. THEY GIVE YOU A CHANCE
TO EXPLAIN TO OTHERS AND TO REMIND YOURSELF WHY YOU
FELL IN LOVE WITH A SUBJECT SO DEEPLY THAT YOU’RE
WILLING TO LIVE IN A CONVERTED GARDEN SHED FOR FIVE
YEARS WHILE YOU STUDY THIS.
(LAUGHTER). THEY GIVE YOU A CHANCE TO
RESPOND TO THOSE PEOPLE THAT SAY ACADEMICS ARE
ELITE OR OUT OF TOUCH BY SHOWING YOUR HUMANITY AND
YOUR HUMOR. THEY LET YOU SHOW HOW THE WORK THAT ALL
OF US IN THIS COMMUNITY DO IS WORTHWHILE. AND
I SAY THIS AS A SANITATION ENGINEER, EVEN
BEAUTIFUL. PEOPLE REALLY CONNECT WITH THAT.
I NOW WORK FOR THIS AMAZING THINK TANK IN
BERKELEY CALLED THE GREEN SCIENCE POLICY INSTITUTE WHERE I
DO SCIENCE COMMUNICATION FOR A LIVEING.
THAT’S WHY, CONTEST ANT ANTS, THIS ISN’T JUST A
COMPETITION TODAY. PEOPLE WILL PAY YOU TO DO THIS IN REAL
LIFE. AND THE WORK WE STUDY AT GREEN SCIENCE POLICY
IS PRETTY HEAVY STUFF. WE LOOK AT TOXIC
CHEMICALS THAT CAN MAKE US SICK. BUT WHEN WE TALK ABOUT IT
, WE DO IT IN WAYS THAT ARE SIMPLE AND OPTIMISTIC
AND SYMPATHETIC AND EVEN FUNNY. AND IT HELPS US TO
MAKE ALLIES OUT OF ENEMYIES AND BELIEVEERS OUT OF
POLICYMAKERS AND EVEN ENVIRONMENT ALLISTS OUT OF
REPUBLICANS. (LAUGHTER).
SO IN A SHAMELESS PLUG, I’M GOING TO ASK YOU TO
CONSIDER SIGNING UP FOR OUR NEWSLETTER BECAUSE IT IS
A WAY THAT YOU CAN LEARN — I’M GOING TO SEND THIS
AROUND. THERE IS ALSO ONE OUT ON THE SIDE THERE.
THIS IS A WAY — THIS IS A WAY THAT IN A FORUM THAT
IS AT LEAST TWICE AS ENTERTAINING AS THIS TALK AND
THREE TIMES MORE INFORMATIVE, YOU CAN LEARN EVERY
MONTH ABOUT SOMETHING THAT REALLY IMPACTS YOUR LIFE
AND YOU DON’T EVEN HAVE TO LOOK AT MY CROOKED NOSE
WHILE YOU GET IT. BUT I’M ALSO GOING TO USE THIS
OPPORTUNITY TO EXHORT THE CONTESTANTS HERE
TODAY. THIS IS REALLY ABOUT YOU. EVEN IF YOU FEEL
ESPECIALLY OUT OF PLACE IN A FORUM LIKE THIS, DON’T JUST
VIEW TODAY AS A COMPETITION. VIEW THIS AS A
MOLD FOR MODEL FOR HOW YOU TALK ABOUT YOUR RESEARCH GOING
FORWARD EVERY DAY FROM NOW NOW, INCLUDING IN ACADEMIC
SETTINGS BECAUSE WHEN PEOPLE SEE YOUR PASSION AND THEY
SEE YOUR ENTHUSIASM AND THEY SEE THE WONDER AND
MAGIC THAT COMES FROM THE WAY THAT YOU TALK ABOUT AND
YOU STUDY THE THINGS THAT YOU’RE DEDICATEING YOUR
LIFE TO, I THINK THAT WILL GIVE YOU MORE VALIDATION
THAN ANY HANDSHAKE IN AN ELEVATEOR EVER COULD. THANK
YOU. (CHEERS AND APPLAUSE).>>THANK YOU SO MUCH.
>>Speaker: THANK YOU SO MUCH, JOE. YOU CAN
UNDERSTAND WHY HE WAS HARD TO BEAT.
(LAUGHTER). SO WE’RE ABOUT TO BEGIN OUR
PRESENTATIONS. I JUST WANTED TO LET YOU KNOW THAT
OUR SPEAKERS, THE ORDER OF THE SPEAKERS, HAS BEEN
RANDOMIZEED SO NOBODY HAS AN ADVANTAGE OR DISADVANTAGE
ED BY VIRTUE OF THEIR LAST NAME. SO IT APPEARS RANDOM
BECAUSE IT IS RANDOM.
WHICH MEANS WE’LL BE SWITCHING FROM ONE TOPIC TO
ANOTHER WHICH WILL ALSO KEEP THINGS VERY INTERESTING
INTERESTING. EACH CONTESTANT IS GOING TO HAVE THREE
MINUTES, AS YOU HEARD, TO PRESENT THEIR RESEARCH.
THE JUDGES WILL BE FOLLOWING THE SAME GUIDELINES
THAT ARE USED IN THE SYSTEM WIDE COMPETITION.
JUDGING PRESENTATIONS ON THEIR INTELLECTUAL
SIGNIFICANCE, THE APPROPRIATE NESS, CLARITY,
ORGANIZATION, ENGAGEMENT, DELIVERY, AND VISUALS.
AND POINTS WILL BE DEDUCTED FOR EVERY THREE SECONDS
THEY EXCEED THREE MINUTES. WE HAVE A CLOCK AT THE
FRONT HERE SO PEOPLE WILL KNOW WHEN THEY’RE GETTING
CLOSE TO THAT. IN BETWEEN EACH PRESENTATION,
THE JUDGES WILL BE DOING THEIR EVALUATION. AND
WHILE THAT IS GOING ON, I WILL BE ASKING THE EACH
CONTESTANT A FEW GENERAL QUESTIONS SO THAT YOU CAN LEARN
A LITTLE BIT MORE ABOUT THEM. AND IT WILL BE VERY
RELAXED AT THAT POINT BECAUSE THEY WILL HAVE
FINISHED THEIR ACTUAL TALK. SO WE MIGHT HAVE SOME
INTERESTING — LEARN SOME INTERESTING THINGS ABOUT
OUR CONTESTANTS. AND THEN AS I SAID BEFORE, AFTER ALL
TEN OF THEM, WE’LL HAVE THE PEOPLE’S CHOICE JUDGING
. WE WILL THEN AS AN AUDIENCE CONVENE FOR SOME
REFRESHMENTS IN THE LOBBY WHILE THE JUDGES DO THE
HARD WORK OF ACTUALLY SELECTING OUR WINNERS.
SO WITH THAT, IT’S MY PLEASURE TO INVITE OUR
FIRST CONTESTANT YIFAN LI TO COME FORWARD. YOU’RE
ALREADY HERE. HE IS A FIFTH- YEAR PH.D. STUDENT IN
CHEMISTRY. SO TAKE IT AWAY. >>Speaker: WHAT
CAN WE MAKE BY JOINING MULTIPLE CARBON ATOMS TOGETHER
ALONG WITH SOME HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN FROM WATER?
WELL, IF YOU’RE TWO CARBONS, YOU CAN MAKE ALCOHOL.
AND WITH THREE, YOU CAN MAKE PROPANE. WITH SIX,
SUGARS. EIGHT, ASPIRIN ASPIRIN. AND AS YOU ADD MORE
CARBON ATOMS, YOU CAN START MAKING PRODUCTS LIKE THEY
WILL, DETER TENT, PLASTICS, PHARMACEUTICALS. ALL
OF THESE PRODUCTS ARE BUILT FROM MULTIPLE CARBON
ATOMS BEING BONDED TOGETHER, MULTICARBONS. AND WE
GET THESE MULTI MULTICARBONS IN THE WORST WAY
IMAGINEABLE. SEE, CARBON DIOXIDE, CO2, IS A
MOLECULE FOR THE SINGLE CARBON ATOM. NATURE HAS THE
METHOD TO TURN CO IT INTO MULTICARBONS WITH A LITTLE WATER
AND SUNLIGHT FOR ENERGY. SHE CALLS THE PROCESS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS. NOW, NATURE IS THE MOST PATIENT
CHEMIST I KNOW. SHE’S BEEN RUNNING THIS INTER
ACTION FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS, TURNING CO2 INTO BIOMASS,
INTO FOSSIL FUELS, BURYING IT DEEP UNDERGROUND
UNTIL WE DIG IT UP TO GET OUR MULTICARBON FIX.
THAT MEANS WE RELY ON THE MILLIONTH-YEAR
REACTION TO GET THE MULTICARBONS FOR OUR SOCIETY AND
ECONOMY. AS WE CONVERT THEM TO THE PRODUCTS WE NEED
NEED, WE TAKE THE EXTRA CARBON AND RELEASE IT BACK
INTO THE ATMOSPHERE AS GREENHOUSE GAS. BUT WHAT IF
WE COULD SPEED UP NATURE’S REACTION TO TAKE DAYS OR
HOURS INSTEAD OF MILLIONS OF YEARS? IN THE FAST-
FAST-TRACK PHOTOSYNTHESIS THAT WOULD REMOVE RELYIANCE
ON FOSSIL FUELS. TO START DO ING THAT, YOU NEED THE
RIGHT ARRANGEMENT ATOMS THAT CAN TAKE TWO CO2
MOLECULES AND BOND THEM TOGETHER. WE CALL THAT THE
CATALYST. IN MY RESEARCH, I STUDY TINY
CATALYSTS CALLED NANOCRYSTALS WHERE THE ARRANGE
MENT OF ATOMS CAN BE PRECISELY CONTROLLED. I PUT
THESE NANOCRYSTALS UNDER WATER SURROUNDED BY CO2
AND RUN ELECTRICITY THROUGH THEM. I AM OBSERVING
WHICH STRUCTURES CREATE THE MOST MULTICARBONS. I
KNOW WHAT DEFINES A GOOD CATALYST. WHAT I’VE
DISCOVERED WAS THAT A GOOD CATALYST IS DEFINED NOT ONLY BY
HOW THE ATOMS ARE PLACED BUT HOW THEY MOVE. IN
FACT, THE FASTER THESE NANOCRYSTALS SCRAMBLE AROUND,
THE MORE MULTICARBONS ARE PRODUCEED, INCLUDING
MOLECULES LIKE ETHANOL AND ETHYLENE, THE PRECURSOR THE MOST
COMMON PLASTIC IN THE WORLD TODAY.
WE’RE USING THESE NEW IN SIGHTS TO SYNTHESIZE
IMPROVED CATALYSTS THAT CAN TURN CO2 INTO VALUEABLE
MULTICARBON PRODUCTS, TYPICAL LY DERIVEED FROM FOSSIL
FUELS. BY UNDERSTANDING HOW THE CATALYST DIRECTS
THIS CHEMISTRY, WE EXPAND THE SCOPE OF PRODUCTS WE
CAN MAKE FROM CO2, WATER, AND RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY.
AND WE DO IT ALL WITHOUT RELY ING ON NATURE’S MILLION
MILLION-YEAR REACTION, PUTTING US ON THE FAST TRACK
TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS. THANK YOU .
(APPLAUSE) .
>>Speaker: SO THANK YOU SO MUCH, YIFAN. WHILE
THE JUDGES DO THEIR HARD WORK — THEY’RE NOT JUDGING
YOU ON THIS SO NOW YOU CAN SAY WHATEVER YOU WANT.
>>Speaker: EXCELLENT. (LAUGHTER).
>>Speaker: I’M LOOKING FORWARD TO THIS PART.
>>Speaker: LET ME ASK YOU, WHERE ARE YOU FROM?
>>Speaker: I MOVEED A LOT AS A CHILD. I
ACTUALLY CAME TO CALIFORNIA DURING GRAD SCHOOL
ESSENTIALLY.>>Speaker: GLAD THAT BROUGHT
YOU HERE.>>Speaker: I MOSTLY GREW UP IN
MARYLAND, NEAR THE D.C. AREA. THAT’S WHERE I
SPENT A LOT OF MY TIME.
>>Speaker: OKAY. SO YOU YOU HAVE TO GET AWAY FROM
ALL THE POLITICIANS.>>Speaker: AWAY FROM THE
POLITICIANS, AWAY FROM THE MOSQUITOES.
(LAUGHTER).>>Speaker: HOW LONG HAVE YOU
BEEN INTERESTED IN CHEMISTRY? ARE YOU SOMEBODY
WHO WAS KIND OF MAKING BONDS BEFORE YOU WERE READING A BOOK
OR DID YOU DEVELOP THIS PASSION LATER
IN LIFE?>>Speaker: NO, NO, NO. WELL,
I MEAN, I WAS — I WAS FIRST ACTUALLY
INTERESTED IN DINOSAURS AND SPACE. INTERESTINGLY ENOUGH IT
CYCLEED AROUND A LOT OF CHEMISTRY WORK I WORK ON IS
RELEVANT TO SPACE. IN COLLEGE, I WAS MOST
INTERESTED IN BIOLOGY. I GOT INTERESTED BECAUSE OF THESE
KINDS OF ENERGY PROBLEMS PROBLEMS. I THINK AS OUR WORLD
CONTINUES TO MOVE FORWARD, THE SOLUTION THAT
CHEMISTRY OFFERS, ESPECIALLY MATERIAL CHEMISTRY,
SEEMS REALLY PROMISING TO ME. I WANTED TO BE
A PART OF THAT EFFORT.
>>Speaker: YOU MENTIONED THAT YOUR CATALYST OF
NANOCRYSTALS OF WHAT?>>Speaker: THESE SPECIFIC —
THESE ARE COUNTRIES CALLS CALL — CRYSTALS
OF COPPER. THE COPPER IS COPPER EVERYWHERE. COPPER IS
ACTUALLY THE ONLY ELEMENT THAT DOES THIS REACTION
WHICH IS SO STRANGE TO US AND NO ONE FIGURED OUT WHY
. IT’S AMAZING. Speaker: MOTHER NATURE
USES MUCH MORE COMPLICATED THINGS THAN COPPER.
WE DON’T KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON REALLY. BUT IT
SEEMS LIKE IT’S AN ACCIDENT THAT COPPER WORKS IN
THIS WAY. Speaker: VERY INTERESTING. SO
JUST TO CHANGE SOME OF THE TOPIC BECAUSE NOT
EVERYBODY IS A CHEMISTRY NERD.
>>I COULD TALK ABOUT THIS ALL DAY.
Speaker: ME, TOO, BUT THEY WOULD BE REALLY
BOREED. SO WHAT DO YOU ENJOY DOING IN CALIFORNIA
THAT YOU COULDN’T DO IN MARYLAND?
Speaker: YES. Speaker: IT’S A VERY DIFFERENT
KIND OF PLACE. SMALLER POPULATIONS OF MOSQUITO
ES. Speaker: I WILL SAY THAT I
DISCOVERED SEVERAL THINGS IN CALIFORNIA THAT I
GUESS DO EXIST IN MARYLAND. THEY’RE JUST NOT AS
PREVALENT SO I DIDN’T DISCOVER THEM BACK THERE. I
WILL OCCASIONALLY GO ROCK CLIMBING.
Speaker: WHERE DO DO YOU GO CLIMBING?
Speaker: BRIDGES — I ACTUALLY DON’T KNOW. I
DON’T DO THE DRIVING. Speaker: I SEE. ANYTHING ELSE THAT YOU LIKE
DOING? Speaker: I THINK JUST THIS AREA
OF CALIFORNIA ESPECIALLY IS JUST REALLY NICE
FOR THE ARTS SCENE AND THE THEATER SCENE. I REALLY
APPRECIATE THINGS AROUND BERKELEY, LIKE GOING TO
LOCAL THEATERS. Speaker: EXCELLENT. WELL,
THANK YOU SO MUCH. (APPLAUSE)
SO OUR SECOND CONTESTANT IS RICHARD BARNES.
RICHARD IS A FOURTH-YEAR PH.D. STUDENT IN THE ENERGY
AND RESOURCES GROUP AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND
COMPUTER SCIENCE. TAKE IT AWAY, RICHARD.
Speaker: IN POLITICS WE ELECT OUR
REPRESENTATIVES FOR TWO YEARS AND SENATORS FOR SIX
YEARS BUT THE MAPS WE DRAW LAST FOR TEN YEARS AT A
TIME. THIS GIVES YOU AN IDEA OF THE IMPORTANCE OF
MAPS. IF POLITICAL MAPS ARE DRAWN IN IF HE ANYWHERE
RUSS WAYS, THE POLITICAL PARTY CAN USE THEM TO LOCK
IN PARTY. AS SHOWN HERE, DIFFERENT MAPS DRAWN WITH
THE SAME VOTER DEMOGRAPHICS CAN LEAD TO VASTLY
DIFFERENT POLITICAL OUTCOMES. DRAWING MAPS IN THIS
WAY IS CALLING GERRYMANDERING , AND MY RESEARCH AIMS
TO PREVENT IT. I’M SO SORRY. MATHEMATICIANS MEASURE SHAPES
USING THE QUANTITY KNOWN AS COMPACTNESS. IF A
DISTRICT IS TOO CONTORT CONTORTED, IT’S OFTEN THOUGHT OF
AS HAVING BEEN GERRYMANDERED. THEREFORE, ONE
WAY TO PREVENT GERRYMANDERING IS TO HAVE A
COMPUTER MEASURE THE SHAPE OF DISTRICTS AND TO REJECT
THOSE WHICH ARE NOT COMPACT ENOUGH. IN MY RESEARCH,
I FOUND THAT EVEN THE SEEMINGLY SIMPLE MEASUREMENT
REQUIRES MANY CHOICES, WHAT MAP PROJECTION
SHOULD BE USED. WHAT IF DISTRICTS HAVE ISLANDS, ANY
SET OF CHOICES WILL LEAD TO A MEASURE OF COMPACTNESS
. HOWEVER, MANY EQUALLY VALID MEASURES WOULD
HAVE AROSE HAD DIFFERENT CHOICES BEEN MADE.
SIMILARLY IF WE HAVE A
COMPUTER INSTEAD DRAW DISTRICTS BY CHOICEING ONLY
SIMPLE, FAIR ARRANGEMENTS OF LINES, MORE OR LESS ARE
DISTRICTS THAT ARE NOT AFFECT ED BY POLITICS OR BY
RACE, THE FACTORS THAT DRIVE GERRYMANDERING.
INSTEAD, WE HAVE DISTRICTS THAT SHOULD BE FAIR.
HOWEVER, N MY RESEARCH, I’VE FOUND THAT THESE
DISTRICTS TEND TO DIVIDE COMMUNITIES AND TO DISEN
DISENFRANCHISE MINORITYIES. FURTHERMORE, FOR
TECHNICAL REASONS, COMPUTERS NEED RANDOMNESS IN
ORDER TO DRAW SUCH DISTRICTS. THIS MEANS THAT
CRITICAL REPRESENTATION CAN COME DOWN TO WHAT ARE
ESSENTIALLY COIN FLIPS. MANY STATES TAKE KIND OF EL
ELRON’S APPROACH TO DRAW DISTRICTS. THEY USE THEIR
KING POWERS TO DRAW DISTRICTS WITHOUT HUMAN INPUT.
THE METHODS I EXPLORE ASK WHETHER IT’S POSSIBLE TO
USE SIMPLE COMPUTATIONAL METHODS IN ORDER TO PREVENT
GERRYMANDERING. AND I FOUND OUT THAT MOSTLY THAT’S
NOT POSSIBLE. SO WITH THE NEXT DISTRICTING IN THREE
YEARS, WHAT CAN WE DO? THERE ARE AS MAY HAVE A
ASYMMETRY IN POWER BETWEEN THE PEOPLE THAT DRAW THE
DISTRICTS AND THE PUBLIC AFFECTED BY THEM. IF WE
ARE TO CAST GERRYMANDERING INTO THE FIRES OF MORDOR,
WE NEED TO GIVE THE PUBLIC ACCESS TO TOOLS AND
INFORMATION SO THEY CAN HAVE A SEAT AT THE TABLE,
TOO,. (APPLAUSE) .
Speaker: THANK YOU VERY MUCH, RICHARD. HOW
DID YOU GET INTERESTED IN THIS TOPIC? I WILL ASK
WHAT DOES THIS HAVE TO DO WITH —
Speaker: THIS IS THE ” AND ENERGY AND RESOURCES
RESOURCES”.” (LAUGHTER) .
I WAS HAVING SOME FEELING AFTER OUR SELECTION —
(LAUGHTER). THERE WAS A GROUP OUT AT M.I.T.
AND TUFTS UNIVERSITY OF HOW PEOPLE
INVOLVED IN MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTER SCIENCE COULD PLAY A
ROLE ON THE EFFECT THAT GERRYMANDERING HAS ON OUR
DEMOCRACY. THIS ESSENTIALLY ALLOWS POLITICIANS
TO CHOOSE WHO THEY REPRESENT RATHER THAN US CHOOSE
ING WHO REPRESENTS US. Speaker: AND SO YOU’VE TALKED
ABOUT SOME OF THE THINGS THAT DON’T WORK. IT’S
INTERESTING BECAUSE YI YIFAN TALKED ABOUT NOT BEING A
MATH PERSON. YOU CLEARLY ARE. YOU SAID — IT
SOUNDS AS THOUGH YOU DON’T ACTUALLY HAVE THE SOLUTION
AT THE MOMENT. IS THAT CORRECT?
Speaker: THAT IS CORRECT . KIND OF.
Speaker: ARE YOU GOING TO COME UP WITH ONE
BEFORE THE NEXT ELECTION? Speaker: ABSOLUTELY.
(LAUGHTER). I THINK A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO ARE
INVOLVED WITH COMPUTER SIGNS AND MATHEMATICS,
WHEN THEY THINK ABOUT THIS PROBLEM, WHAT ARISES
IN THEIR MINDS FIRST IS SIMPLE METHODS. THESE ARE
DIAGRAMS, THE SIMPLEST WAY YOU WOULD SOLVE THIS PROBLEM
OR MAYBE WE CAN TAKE WHAT PEOPLE DRAW AND WE CAN
LIMIT IT. THE PROBLEM IS THAT THESE IDEAS
HAVEN’T BEEN WELL- WELL-EVALUATEED. AND SO WHAT
I’VE BEEN DOING IS I HAVE BEEN TAKING SUGGESTIONS
THAT HAVE BEEN FORWARDED BY THE COMMUNITY THAT
HAVEN’T BEEN WELL- WELL-EXPLOREED AND I HAVE BEEN
CHECKING TO SEE LIKE DOES THIS WORK, DOES THIS WORK.
AND WITH EACH SIMPLE WE RULE OUT, WE ARE LEFT
WITH MORE COMPLEX ALTERNATIVES THAT INCORPORATE
MORE HUMAN VALUES. THAT IS WE’RE LEFT WITH METHODS
THAT ARE EASIER TO GAME.
I THINK THAT WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE WAY DISTRICTS
ARE DRAWN, STATES WITH INDEPENDENT COMMISSIONS AND
STATES THAT TRY TO EFFECT UALLY INSULATE THE
GERRYMANDERING PROCESS FROM THEIR POLITICIANS TEND
TO EXPERIENCE LESS GERRYMANDERING. SIMILARLY,
STATES THAT HAVE A RULE FOR THE PUBLIC TO GET
INVOLVED WITH THE PROCESS, THEY EXPERIENCE BETTER
OUTCOMES FOR CERTAIN COMMUNITIES. FOR INSTANCE,
MINNEAPOLIS WAS ABLE TO GIVE THEIR SMALL COMMUNITY
ACCESS TO THE TOOLS THAT THEY USE TO DRAW MAPS THERE
THERE. AND THIS LED TO SOMALIS HAVING
REPRESENTATION ON THE MINNEAPOLIS CITY COUNCIL. I
THINK GIVING PEOPLE INFORMATION TO TOOLS IS THE WAY
OF BALANCING OUT THE POWER OF PEOPLE VERSUS POWER OF
THE GOVERNMENT. Speaker: I SEE. WHAT PART OF
YOUR UPBRINGING PAYS FOR THIS KIND OF WORK?
WERE YOU ALSO INTERESTED IN MATHEMATICS? DID
YOU COME TO THIS LATER?
Speaker: I THINK IT’S JUST BEEN AN AREA THAT’S
ALWAYS FASCINATED ME TO SOME DEGREE AND IT TOOK A
LONG TIME TO SETTLE DOWN THIS IN. I RECEIVEED A FULL
DEGREE IN PHILOSOPHY BEFORE ARRIVEING AT MATHEMATICS.
I DID MY PHILOSOPHY IN ETHICS .
(LAUGHTER). THERE IS AN INFINITE REALM OF
PROBLEMS YOU CAN CHOOSE TO WORK ON. BUT WHAT
YOUR ETHICS ARE, WHAT YOUR SOCIAL AWARENESS IS, THAT
KIND OF DETERMINES THE DIRECTIONS YOU TAKE YOUR
SKILLS . OUR THIRD CONTESTANT IS
SARA ANN KNUTSON DOING HER STUDIES IN SCANDINAVIAN
STUDIES AND ARCHEOLOGY. FOUR YEARS AGO A TV SERIESES GOT
HACKED. THE SHOW “HOMELAND” HIRED GRAFFITI ARTISTS TO REDRAW
REFUGEE REFUGEE CAMPS. THE EPISODE WAS
ON AIR AND VIEWERS DISCOVERED THAT THE ARTIST HAD
INTENTIONAL MESSAGES INCLUDING HOMELAND IS A WATER
MELON, AN INSULT MEANING THE SHOW IS A JOKE. NOW
, YOU MAY THINK THAT THE IRONY OF THE SERIES INTENDS
TO DEPICT ARAB CULTURE WITHOUT UNDERSTANDING
THE LANGUAGE IS OBVIOUS. NOW, WHAT IF I TOLD
YOU THAT THERE IS AN ENTIRE PART OF WORLD HISTORY
THAT IS OFTEN IGNOREED BECAUSE FEW ENGLISH-SPEAKING
SCHOLARS CAN READ ARABIC. WELL, EXTENSIVE GLOBAL
CONNECTIONS BETWEEN THE ARAB WORLD AND EUROPE WERE
AS MUCH A REALITY A THOUSAND YEARS AGO AS THEY ARE
TODAY. BUT HOW DO WE PIECE TOGETHER A PATH THAT IS
NOT YET WRITTEN DOWN IN HISTORY BOOKS? WELL, TWO
YEARS AGO, I MET A GIRL WHO CAME TO CALIFORNIA AS A
REFUGEE. SHE CARRYIES AT ALL TIMES THE KEY TO HER HOUSE
IN SYRIA, A DAILY PROMISE THAT ONE DAY SHE WILL
RETURN HOME. AS AN ARCHEOLOGIST, I STUDY OBJECTS
LIKE THIS KEY. I RESEARCH POLYETHNIC OBJECTS THAT
MOVE BETWEEN THE ARAB WORLD TO EUROPE A THOUSAND
YEARS AGO. NOW, THESE OBJECTS HAVE CONTESTED
OWNERSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNITIES, MUSEUMS, AND EVEN
GOVERNMENTS. AS AN ACADEMIC, I SEE IT AS MY ROLE
AND A PRIVILEGE TO MEDIATE THESE PERSPECTIVES BY
COMMUNICATING. MUCH LIKE THE FILM SAID, IT IS NOT
ENOUGH AND IT MIGHT EVEN BE DANGEROUS TO STUDY
CULTUREAL INTERACTIONS WITHOUT INVOLVEING COMMUNITIES
WHO HAVE A CLAIM TO THIS HERITAGE. CROSS-CULTUREAL
INTERACTIONS HAVE THE POWER TO ILLUMINATE HOW WE
CONSTRUCT OUR CULTUREAL IDENTITYIES.
THE URGENCY OF THIS WORK IS TO BREAK DOWN THIS
NARRATIVE OF US VERSUS THEM. HOW DO WE CHALLENGE
THIS NARRATIVE AND SOLVE SOCIAL ISSUES TODAY? I
BELIEVE THE ANSWER IS TO START BY LOOKING AT THE WAY
WAYS IN WHICH WE HAVE MOVEED, INTERACTED, AND SHARED
COMMON EXPERIENCES IN THE PAST AS WELL AS TODAY.
THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) .
: SO HOW DID YOU GET INTERESTED IN ARCHEOLOGY?
I’M REALLY STRUCK BY YOUR LINKAGE BETWEEN PAST AND
TODAY. AND I’M INTERESTED IN HOW COMMON THAT
APPROACH IS IN YOUR CONTEMPORARY ARCHEOLOGY?
: YEAH, IT’S DEFINITELY SOMETHING THAT IS MORE
PART OF OUR ARCHEOLOGY NOW THAN IT WAS EVEN 15 YEARS
AGO. I WAS ALWAYS REALLY INTERESTED IN TRAVELING
AND LEARNING FROM PEOPLE WHO COME FROM A VERY
DIFFERENT BACKGROUND, VERY DIFFERENT CULTURE. SO,
YEAH, I JUST — I WAS DRAWN TO THIS PROJECT BECAUSE
IT ALLOWS ME TO NOT ONLY TRAVEL TO MANY PLACES,
SPEAK MANY LANGUAGES BUT IT ALLOWS ME TO REALLY GET
INTO THESE DIFFERENT CULTURES AND SEE HOW THEY
COMMUNICATED IN THE PAST ESPECIALLY OVER THIS
HISTORY THAT SO MANY PEOPLE DON’T KNOW ABOUT.
: I’M GOING TO ASK YOU: HOW MANY LANGUAGES DO
YOU SPEAK? OR READ. : READ IS PROBABLY A BETTER
QUESTION. TO VARY VARIES DEGREES OF PROFICIENCY, I
SPEAK ABOUT TEN LANGUAGES.
: I’M NOT A LINGUIST WHICH IS WHY I STILL TALK
LIKE THIS. (LAUGHTER). I’M LOST IN ADMIRATION. SO
WHERE DID YOU GROW UP?
: I GREW UP ON THE WESTSIDE OF MICHIGAN SO
CLOSE TO CHICAGO THAN DETROIT. YEAH, I WAS BORN IN
GRAND RAPID. Speaker: I HAVE INLAWS AROUND
THERE. I DO KNOW IT. SO DID YOU GO TO SCHOOL AS
AN UNDERGRAD IN MICHIGAN?
Speaker: I DID. Speaker: I DID MY UNDERGRAD AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN. AND THEN WENT TO
ENGLAND FOR A YEAR AND THEN MOVED UP TO CALIFORNIA.
Speaker: WHERE DID YOU END UP IN SCANDINAVIA?
WAS IT FROM BEING IN THE MIDWEST?
Speaker: MAYBE. YEAH, SO MY ANCESTORS COME
FROM NORWAY SO I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN FASCINATED
ESPECIALLY BY THE VIKINGS BECAUSE THEY’RE THE GREAT
TRAVELERS OF THEIR DAY AND I THINK THAT’S ONE REASON
WHY I WAS SORT OF DRAWN FIRSTLY TO SCANDINAVIA
BEFORE SORT OF LOOKING OUTWARDS AND THE PLACES THAT
THEY TRAVELED. Speaker: THEY TRAVELED WELL.
WE WERE THE IRISH BUNCH.
AND SO WHAT IS YOUR IMPRESSION OF CALIFORNIA NOW
THAT YOU HAVE BEEN HERE? YOU HAVE TRAVELED A LOT SO
YOU HAVE A LOT TO COMPARE IT WITH.
Speaker: I LOVE THE DIVERSITY OF IT AND, OF
COURSE, THE WEATHER IS AMAZING. I WOULD NEVER GO
BACK TO MICHIGAN IN WINTERS. IT’S BEEN AMAZING.
Speaker: AND SO WHAT WOULD BE SOMETHING THAT
SOMEBODY WOULD BE MAYBE SURPRISED TO KNOW ABOUT YOU?
Speaker: OKAY. DEPENDS HOW YOU KNOW ME. I’M A
TRIATHLETE. Speaker: OH, WOW.
Speaker: LAST YEAR I COMPETED IN THE ESCAPE
FROM ALCATRAZ TRIATHLON. I SWAM ACROSS THE
SAN FRANCISCO BAY. Speaker: YOU HAVE TO RUN AND
BIKE? Speaker: I DON’T REMEMBER THE
BIKE. I THINK IT WAS SOMETHING LIKE 40 KILOMETERS
AND THEN IT WAS AN EIGHT-MILE RUN. IT TAKES A
WHILE. Speaker: THAT’S PRETTY
IMPRESSIVE THANK YOU SO MUCH.
Speaker: THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) .
SO OUR FOURTH CONTESTANT IS MICHAEL NANCE WHO IS
IN HIS FIRST YEAR DOING A PH.D. IN ETHNOMUSICOLOGY.
MICHAEL. Speaker: IN JEWISH RELIGIOUS PRACTICE,
THERE IS A PHENOMENON CALLED A WORDLESS
MELODY THAT IS OFTEN
SUNG WHEN PEOPLE COME TOGETHER. IT IS SUNG WITHOUT
ANY WORDS OFF AND ON ONE SYLLABLE, A NI OR A DI AND
IT IS SUNG REPETITIVELY SO IT IS VERY EASY FOR
ANYBODY TO PARTICIPATE. (MUSIC)
IT WAS SAID THAT THE NEGUN TENDS TO TAKE ON A
LIFE OF ITS OWN. PEOPLE HAVE AN INHERENT NEED FOR
COMMUNITY. IT DOESN’T MATTER HOW INTROVERTED YOU
MAY BE THERE’S AN EFFORT AMONG PROFESSIONS THAT SAY
THAT PROFESSIONS ARE FUNDAMENTAL TO BEING A HUMAN
BEING AND A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE FEELING A LACK.
(MUSIC). THERE’S AN INITIATIVE OF THE
ARTS TRYING TO BRING PEOPLE TOGETHER. PEOPLE
FEEL LINKEDIN LINKED IN WITH THEIR TECHNOLOGY. SO THEY ARE
LOOKING BEYOND THEIR CONTEMPORARY REALITY OF TIMES
AND A SENSE OF BELONGING. AND THEY’RE DOING SO
THROUGH THE PHENOMENON OF HERITAGE TOURISM.
HERITAGE TOURISM IS NOT EXACTLY A NEW
PHENOMENON. BUT IT IS THE FOCUS OF MY RESEARCH NOW
AND IT IS A PHENOMENON DESIGN TO MARKET TRIPS TO
DIAS POUR RAT ETHNIC GROUPS THEY CONTINUE TO BE
THEIR HOMELAND. IN PARTICULAR I WOULD LIKE TO
RESEARCH HOW MUSIC IS USED IN — WITHIN HERITAGE
TOURISTS TO CREATE NEW SENSES OF COMMUNITY AMONG
PEOPLE WHO MIGHT NOT HAVE NECESSARILY MET EACH OTHER
BEFORE OR WHO GO ON TO — OR WHO GO TO A NEW PLACE.
IT’S NOT SO EASY TO BUILD COMMUNITY LIKE THIS. IT’S
NOT JUST THAT YOU GET ON THE PLANE AND FLY TO SOME
PLACE YOU HAVE NEVER BEEN TO BEFORE. YOU NEED
SOMETHING ELSE REALLY, SOMETHING THAT CAN SPEAK TO
THE SOUL, TO SHARE EMOTIONS ABOUT ANY SENSE OF
PRETENSE BECAUSE AT THE END OF THE DAY, EMOTIONS CAN
BUILD COMMUNITY IN A WAY THAT THOUGHTS CAN ONLY
ASPIRE TO. SO MY RESEARCH, I’M SPENDING MUCH OF MY
ACADEMIC CAREER FOCUSING ON MUSIC AND HERITAGE
TOURISM, SPECIFICALLY IN THE CASE OF THE JEWISH
HERITAGE TOURISM BUT IN OTHER CONTEXTS AS WELL,
IRELAND, MOROCCO. AND I ASK THE QUESTION: WHAT
EXACTLY — HOW EXACTLY DOES MUSIC RECREATE
COMMUNITIES IN A WORD THAT IS DIVISIVE. WE OWE IT
TO OURSELVES TO BRING PEOPLE TOGETHER. THANK YOU.
(APPLAUSE) Speaker: CONGRATULATIONS.
THANK YOU VERY MUCH. Speaker: THANK YOU.
Speaker: SO I’M FASCINATED. DID YOU COME INTO
THIS AREA FROM BACKGROUND WHERE YOU WERE FOCUSING
PRIMARILY ON MUSIC? OR HAVE YOU — DID YOU COME TO
IT FROM SOMETHING MORE OF AN ANN THROW ANTHROPOLOGY
PERSPECTIVE? Speaker: MORE OF AND THROW POLL
GEE PERSPECTIVE. I HAVE A MASTERS
FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. BUT I AM A
MUSICIAN. I’M A VIOLINNER. I SPECIALIZE IN EASTERN JEWISH
MUSIC AND ARAB CLASSICAL MUSIC. AND WHEN I WAS
IN HIGH SCHOOL, I WAS THINKING THERE’S GOT TO BE
SOMETHING — I WOULD LOVE TO BE ABLE TO STUDY LIKE IS
THERE SUCH A THING, LIKE, ETHNOMUSICOLOGY?
SOMETHING LIKE THAT? AND IT TURNS OUT THERE ACTUALLY IS.
(LAUGHTER) SO I DECIDED TO JUMP FOR IT.
Speaker: SO FROM AND ANTHROPOLICCAL PERSPECTIVE, HOW
LONG DOES IT INDICATE THAT PEOPLE HAVE BEEN MAKING
MUSIC OR SINGING AND SO ON? THIS IS AN EVEN HARDER
QUESTION. IT’S SOMETHING THAT IS REALLY
INTERESTING TO ME BECAUSE THE FOSSIL RECORD MAY NOT
ACTUALLY BE PARTICULARLY THE ARTIFACT RECORD. IT MAY BE
WEAK ON THIS, RIGHT? Speaker: NOT NECESSARILY. I
MEAN, I’M NOT AN ARCHEOLOGIST, BUT THERE’S —
THERE’S ALL KINDS OF RECORDS OF DIFFERENT — I MEAN,
THERE’S REMNANTS OF SOME MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS THAT
HAVE BEEN FOUND FROM THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF YEARS
AGO. AS FAR AS I KNOW BETWEEN THAT AND CAVE
PAINTINGS, THERE ARE RECORDS OF PEOPLE MAKING MUSIC
FROM THE BEGINNINGS OF RECORDED HISTORY FROM SOME WAY.
Speaker: SO THE HARD QUESTION IS, WERE THERE
ANY OTHER ANIMALS THAT MAKE MUSIC? CLEARLY SONGBIRD
S CAN SING AND MAKE MUSIC. BUT IS THERE ANY
EVIDENCE OF, SAY, ANY OTHER PRIMATES COMMUNICATING
OR CREATING COMMUNITY? Speaker: THAT’S A VERY
INTERESTING QUESTION. Speaker: GETTING TOGETHER AND
MAKING NOISE. Speaker: ACTUALLY SOMEBODY ELSE
IN MY PROGRAM WHO IS SPECIALIZES IN ORANGUTANS
AND THEIR PERCEPTION OF METAL MUSIC IN
INDONESIA — SERIOUSLY, SERIOUSLY. (LAUGHTER).
AND IT’S FASCINATING STUFF. I DON’T KNOW NEARLY
ENOUGH ABOUT THAT TO BE ABLE TO SPEAK ABOUT IT. BUT
I KNOW THAT PEOPLE STUDY IT AND, LIKE, THERE’S ETHNO
MUSICOLOGY AWARDS ABOUT HOW THEY’RE INTERPRET
ING SOUND SCAPES AROUND THEM, WHETHER IT’S
BIRD SONG OR EVEN INTERPRETING NATURE AS MUSIC IN
SOME WAY. YEAH. Speaker: WHICH BRINGS TO MIND
MY AREA OF SPECIALIZATION — ONE OF THE
THINGS WE HAVE TO WORRY ABOUT IS KEEPING WILDLIFE AWAY
FROM TOXIC SITES AND APPARENTLY MANY MY MIGRATORY BIRDS ARE AFFECTED BY
HEAVY METAL MUSIC. (LAUGHTER). AC/DC OR SOMETHING.
Speaker: INTERESTING. Speaker: THANK YOU VERY
MUCH. Speaker: THANK YOU.
(APPLAUSE) Speaker: SO OUR FIFTH
CONTESTANT IS NANCY FREITAS. NANCY IS A FIRST-YEAR
STUDENT IN THE ENERGY AND RESOURCES GROUP.
NANCY. Speaker: WHAT IF I TOLD
YOU THAT BACTERIA, THOSE TINY MICROBES WE CAN’T
EVEN SEE WITH THE NAKED EYE, ARE, IN PART, RESPONSIBLE
FOR SOME OF THE LARGEST CLIMATE CHANGES THAT WE
ARE SEEING AROUND THE PLANET? CHANGES THAT WE ARE
ALL FAMILIAR WITH, LIKE THE WILDFIRES RIPPING
THROUGH OUR BACKYARD RIGHT HERE IN NORTHERN
CALIFORNIA. WOULD YOU BELIEVE ME?
BACTERIA ARE SMALL. IT’S TRUE. BUT THEY
PARTICIPATE IN THE GLOBAL CARBON CYCLE WHICH MEANS
THAT THEY HAVE A SIMILAR ABILITY TO PARTICIPATE IN
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE. BUT LET’S TAKE A STEP BACK.
I LIVE UP IN THE ARCTIC WHERE THIS WILL SURPRISE
NOBODY, IT’S COLD. AND THERE ARE AREAS OF GROUND
THAT HAVE BEEN PERMANENTLY FROZEN FOR TENS OF
THOUSANDS OF YEARS. THAT MEANS MICROBES IN THIS
GROUND HAVE BEEN INACTIVE OR DORMANT FOR THE SAME
AMOUNT OF TIME.
AS SOON AS CLIMATE CHANGE HITS AND THIS PERMA
FROST BEGINS TO THAW, THOSE MICROBES WAKE UP
AND THEY START EATING ALL THE UNFROZEN PLANT
MATERIALS THAT’S NOW AVAILABLE TO THEM. AND
UNFORTUNATELY FOR HUMANS, TWO OF THE WASTE PRODUCTS
THAT MICROBES CAN PRODUCE WHEN THEY DO THIS ARE
CARBON DIOXIDE AND METHANE, POTENT GREENHOUSE GASES
IF RELEASED TO THE ATMOSPHERE.
AND IF YOU CONSIDER THE FACT THAT IN A SINGLE
SPOONFUL OF SOIL THERE EXISTS ABOUT A BILLION
BACTERIA AND YOU SPREAD THAT ACROSS THE ENTIRE
ARCTIC, THAT IS A LOT OF GREENHOUSE GAS THAT COULD
BE RELEASED TO THE ATMOSPHERE. BUT I’M NOT
STUDYING ALL MICROBES IN THE ARCTIC. I’M
SPECIFICALLY LOOKING AT MICROBES IN LAKE
SEDIMENT AND THE REASON FOR THIS IS THAT LAKES CURRENTLY
COVER ABOUT 40% OF THE AREA OF THE ARCTIC. BUT
WE’RE NOT SURE HOW THEY’RE GOING TO CHANGE.
AND THIS MEANS THAT A LOT OF OUR GLOBAL CLIMATE
MODELS DO NOT INCORPORATE LAKES. SO MODELS THAT
LOOK LIKE THESE COULD BE MISSING A MAJOR SOURCE OF
POTENTIAL WARMING IN OUR FUTURE PROJECTIONS. NOW,
THE REASON THIS IS IMPORTANT IS THAT IF WE CAN MAKE
THESE MODELS MORE ACCURATE AND MORE REPRESENTATIVE
OF POTENTIAL CLIMATE SCENARIOS, THEN OUR LEGISLATORS
CAN CALL UPON THEM TO MAKE CLIMATE ADAPTATION
STRATEGIES THAT ARE ROOTED IN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE.
NOW, I KNOW THAT TALKING ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE
CAN BE A LITTLE BIT DISCOURAGING. BUT CLIMATE
CHANGE IS NOT A DONE DEAL. IF MICROBES, WHICH ARE
SO INCREDIBLY SMALL, HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO IMPACT
GLOBAL CARBON CYCLING, THEN, SURELY, HUMANS WHICH
ARE MUCH LARGER AND MUCH SMARTER THAN MICROBES CAN
HAVE A SIMILARLY LARGE EFFECT IF WE COLLECTIVELY
MITIGATE OUR IMPACT ON THE PLANET. WE JUST NEED TO
START HAVING THESE CONVERSATIONS RIGHT NOW.
THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) Speaker: THANK YOU, NANCY. SO
I WAS SO PLEASED THAT YOU ENDED ON SUCH A
POSITIVE NOTE. SO TELL ME WHY YOU’RE INTERESTED IN
BASICALLY LIFTING US UP FROM OUR DEPRESSION.
Speaker: YEAH. SO, THERE HAVE BEEN A LOT OF
TALK ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE LAST FEW DECADES
BUT IT DOESN’T FEEL LIKE WE ARE STARTING TO MOBILIZE
OUR COMMUNITIES VERY QUICKLY, AND THIS IS SOMETHING
THAT’S REALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE WE KNOW THAT THESE
CHANGES ARE GOING TO HAPPEN VERY QUICKLY.
AND SO ONE OF THE IDEAS THAT I HAVE IS THAT IF
WE TALK ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE IN A WAY THAT’S HOPE-
BASED AND URGENCY-BASED AS OPPOSED TO THIS DOOM
‘S DAY MESSAGE THAT WE USUALLY HEAR THAT WE
MIGHT BE ABLE TO MORE EFFECTIVELY TALK TO ONE
ANOTHER AND START MAKING BITE-SIZE CHANGES IN
CLIMATE CHANGE. Speaker: HOW DID YOU GET
INTERESTED IN THIS APPROACH? ALTHOUGH, MAYBE YOU
JUST WANTED TO SAVE THE HUMAN RACE.
Speaker: YEAH. SO I GOT AN UNDERGRADUATE IN
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND THEN SPENT SOME TIME DOING
EDUCATION AND OUTREACH BETWEEN MY UNDERGRADUATE AND
GRADUATE EDUCATION. AND IN THAT EXPERIENCE, I REAL
IZED THAT PEOPLE REALLY WANT TO TALK TO
SCIENTISTS AND PEOPLE ARE REALLY INTERESTED IN
LEARNING ABOUT WHAT WE’RE TALKING ABOUT. BUT
SOMETIMES THOSE TALKS ARE BARRIERS TO THEM BASED ON
HOW WE CAN VACATE. I STARTED THINKING ABOUT CLIMATE
CHANGE AND HOW THAT MIGHT GET WRAPPED INTO IT.
Speaker: WHERE ARE YOU FROM, NANCY?
>>I’M THERE TUCSON, ARIZONA.
Speaker: IT’S A LITTLE BIT WARMER THAN IT IS
HERE. Speaker: YES, PROBABLY NICE.
HOW ARE YOU ENJOY ING CALIFORNIA?
>>I. Speaker: I LOVE IT. IT’S
GREAT. WITH A SLIGHT EXCEPTION ABOUT THE WEATHER. WE
WERE TALKING ABOUT MOVING FROM THE EAST COAST AND
IT BEING REALLY NICE BECAUSE IT’S WARM HERE. IT’S
NOT WARM HERE. (LAUGHTER).
I LOVE CALIFORNIA. PEOPLE ARE WONDERFUL HERE.
Speaker: ANY CONVERSATION WITH PEOPLE ABOUT
CLIMATE CHANGE, AND SO ON, WHAT ARE SOME OF THE
THINGS THAT YOU FELT LIKE “MAYBE I COULD MAKE A
DIFFERENCE”? Speaker: THAT’S A GOOD
QUESTION. PEOPLE’S WILLINGNESS TO GET INVOLVED IN
THESE ISSUES HAS REALLY MADE AN IMPACT ON ME.
AND I THINK HEARING PEOPLE BE INTERESTED AND GETTING
INVOLVED IN CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH OR DOING
SOMETHING IN THEIR COMMUNITIES OR HELPING
BIODIVERSITY HAS REALLY SPUR RED ME TO START THINKING ABOUT
WHAT I PERSONALLY CAN DO A LITTLE BIT MORE OF.
Speaker: AND HOW ACCURATE DO YOU THINK IS THE
INFORMATION THAT MANY SAY YOUNG PEOPLE HAVE ON THE
TOPIC? HOW MUCH EDUCATION AS OPPOSED TO
COMMUNICATION IS NEEDED? Speaker: THAT’S A GREAT
QUESTION. SO I SPENT SOME TIME IN K-12 SCHOOLS IN THE
LAST FEW YEARS. AND IT WAS A LITTLE SAD BECAUSE
A LOT OF THE K-12 STUDENTS THAT I INTERACTED WITH
ON A DAILY BASIS KEPT SAYING “OH, WE’RE GOING TO
DIE. OH, IT DOESN’T EVEN MATTER, OH, THE WORLD IS
ENDING.” SO TRYING TO FIGURE OUT HOW TO REACH THEM IS
REALLY IMPORTANT. AND ONE OF THE WAYS WE CAN DO
THAT IS BY PUTTING SCIENTISTS IN FRONT OF THEM AND
BY WORKING WITH EDUCATORS TO DELIVER MESSAGES IN
WAYS THAT CAN REACH THEIR STUDENTS.
Speaker: THANK YOU SO MUCH.
(APPLAUSE) OUR SIXTH CONTESTANT IS PIERRE
TCHETGEN. PIERRE IS IN HIS EIGHTH YEAR DOING HIS
PH.D. IN THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
TAKE IT AWAY, PIERRE. Speaker: SO I’M GOING TO SHARE
A STORY WITH YOU . BEFORE INTERNET, BEFORE
RADIO, BEFORE TELEVISION, THE TELEPHONE AND
BEFORE THE TELEGRAPH THERE WERE TALKING DRUMS.
TALKING DRUMS. THE FIRST COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY USED TO
TRANSMITT INFORMATION AT A DISTANCE IN THE
RHYTHMIC FORM CALLED DRUM LANGUAGE TO RELATE
FROM VILLAGE TO VILLAGE. MESSAGES COULD TRAVEL
A HUNDRED MILES OR MORE IN THE MATTER OF AN HOUR
WITH CHILDREN ALMOST BEING AMONG THE FIRST TO PICK UP
ON THEIR MEANING. TRAPS BY VIRTUE OF THE MUSICAL
NATURE OF DRUM COMMUNICATIONS. IN FACT, DRUM
LANGUAGE USED TO BE SO FAMILIAR IN AFRICA THAT IT
USED TO BE A SECOND FORM OF LANGUAGE WITH NEARLY
EVERYBODY HAVING A DRUM NATE NAME INCLUDING AT TIMES
EVEN PETS. NEEDLESS TO SAY THIS WAS A POWERFUL AND
SIGNIFICANT MODE OF VISUALIZATION. TALKING DRUMS
WERE QUITE THE INNOVATION.
FAST FORWARD TO TODAY, TO INFORMATION SOCIETY OF
DESKTOP, LAPTOP, COMPUTERS, MOBILE PHONES, TABLETS,
AR, VR AND BODY INTERACTIONS, THE TALKING DRUM IS
ALL BY AN ARCHAIC AND OBSOLETE FORM WHEN IT COMES TO
COMMUNICATION. BUT, YET, IN LIGHT OF RECENT
EVENTS AND HUMAN COMPUTER INTERACTION OR HCI, THE
TALKING DRUM MAY GET A CHANCE TO NEGATE THE
SENTENCE AND REINVENT ITSELF, ONCE AGAIN. I PRESENT
TO YOU THE DRUMBALL WHICH IS A DIGITAL SYSTEM AND
LEARNING ENVIRONMENT THAT ACTS AS A TRANSDUCER OF
RHYTHMIC INPUT INTO MULTIMODELLAL OUTPUT. IT’S ITS
DESIGN IS THE FOCUS OF MY DIESTER SAYINGS WHICH IS
THE INTERSECTION OF INFORMATION, EDUCATION, AND
ETHNOMUSICOLOGY TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT IN
DIGITAL CAN HAVE ON EARLY SKILLS OF CHILDREN.
WITH THE DRUMBALL, WE COULD TRANSFORM EDUCATION
BY CELEBRATING RESEARCH AND CULTURALLY GROUNDED AND
BODY LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS THAT COMPUTER INTERACTION
AROUND DRUM PATTERNS TO BE TURNED INTO LETTERS,
WORDS AND PHRASES. WE CAN MEDIATE LEARNING ACROSS
READING, DRAMA, TECHNOLOGY, HISTORY. ALSO THE
INFORMATION OF THE TALKING DRUM. THANK YOU.
(APPLAUSE) Speaker: SO THANK YOU SO MUCH,
PIERRE. ARE YOU ABLE TO GIVE US A DEMONSTRATION?
Speaker: UNFORTUNATELY NOT TODAY. BUT, YES,
IT’S FUNCTIONAL. Speaker: HOW LONG HAVE YOU BEEN
INTERESTED IN THIS? IT’S ABSOLUTELY
FASCINATING. Speaker: IT’S DEFINITELY AN
EXCITING PROJECT. I’LL GIVE YOU THE SHORT VERSION
BECAUSE I’M A STORYTELLER SO THERE’S ALWAYS A
STORY. TO MAKE IT SHORT, I WAS WALKING ONE DAY
DOWNTOWN UC BERKELEY — OR DOWNTOWN BERKELEY AND I
WALKED BY A BOOKSTORE AND SOMETHING TOLD ME TO GO IN. AND
I WALKED IN. AND I WALKED DOWN THE AISLE AND
SOMETHING TOLD ME TO TURN. SO I TURNED. THERE WAS A BOOK
AND I RECOGNIZE THE SYMBOL ON THE BOOK BECAUSE IT
WAS A SYMBOL OFS FROM GHANA WHICH MEANS “BELIEVE IN
GOD.” I PICKED UP THAT BOOK. AND I READ IT WHILE
I WAS TAKING A COURSE IN MY EARLY DAYS OF
LITERACY. AND IN THAT BOOK WHICH WAS WRITTEN BY A
GENTLEMAN FROM GHANA HE WAS TALKING ABOUT DRUMS AS A
TECHNOLOGY FOR CULTIVATING, FOR UNLEASHING THE
HUMAN POTENTIAL AND BUILDING COMMUNITY. AND I READ
THE WHOLE BOOK AND IT WAS WITHIN THAT BOOK THAT HE
WAS MENTIONING THE WAY THAT THE DRUMS WERE USED IN
OUR CULTURES AND THE IMPACT THEY HAD ON CHILDREN.
THAT’S WHAT MADE ME CLICK TO DEEPEN THAT IN MY
STUDIES. Speaker: HAVE YOU HAD A CHANCE
YET TO TEST SOME OF YOUR THEORIES WITH CHILDREN
IN THIS SPECIFIC EDUCATIONAL GOALS?
Speaker: YES. WELL, ACTUALLY LAUNCHING MY
INTERVENTION NEXT MONTH ON APRIL 19TH. BUT I’VE
DONE A COUPLE PILOTS AS WELL. THE FOCUS IS ON
LETTER NAMING AND PICTURE NAMING BECAUSE IT’S A
MULTIMODAL TOOL. IT’S CONNECTED TO A PLATFORM, A
WEBSITE. SO YOU DO THE CALL WITH THIS DEVICE AND
YOU GET THE RESPONSE TO THE BROWSER. SO WE’RE
LOOKING AT THESE APPLICATIONS FOR THESE EARLY SKILLS Speaker: VERY INTERESTING.
YOU’RE FROM GHANA, YOU SAY.
Speaker: MY MOTHER IS FROM GHANA. MY FATHER IS
FROM CAMEROON. Speaker: I WAS IN GHANA LAST
YEAR. I VERY MUCH ENJOYED MYSELF. DID YOU DO
GRADUATE WORK THERE, OR ARE YOU BEEN ELSEWHERE SINCE
THEN? OR WERE YOU RAISED HERE?
Speaker: GREAT QUESTION. I LEFT HOME WHEN I
WAS 10 AND I WANT TO SCHOOL IN FRANCE FOR ABOUT
SEVEN YEARS BEFORE COMING TO THE U.S. FOR COLLEGE.
I WENT TO OHIO-MIAMI UNIVERSITY. AND I DID — I
WENT TO THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO BEFORE COMING TO
UC BERKELEY. Speaker: I HOPE YOU ARE
ENJOYING BERKELEY. Speaker: VERY MUCH SO. THIS
WAS THE PLACE I WAS TRYING TO BE. IT’S JUST
BEEN A LONG ROAD TO GET HERE.
(LAUGHTER) Speaker: WELL, THANK YOU SO
MUCH, PIERRE. VERY INTERESTING TALK.
Speaker: THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) OUR SEVENTH CONTESTANT IS LAURA
FOUQUETTE. LAURA IS A MASTER STUDENT IN THE
SCHOOL OF PUBLIC HEALTH. LAURA. Speaker: IN THE BAY
AREA, WE SEE HOMELESSNESS ALL AROUND US. ON ANY GIVEN
NIGHT IN THE UNITED STATES, APPROXIMATELY 300,000
WOMEN ARE HOMELESS. GENERALLY WE KNOW THAT
VIOLENCE-RELATED NEGATIVE HEALTH OUTCOMES
DISPROPORTIONATELY AFFECT WOMEN. HOWEVER, HOMELESS AND
UNSTABLY HOUSED WOMEN ARE ESPECIALLY VULNERABLE TO
EXPERIENCING VIOLENCE BECAUSE THEY MAY SLEEP ON THE
STREET OR IN A PUBLIC PLACE.
THUS, HOMELESS AND UNSTABLY HOUSED WOMEN
EXPERIENCE HIGHER RATES OF VIOLENCE THAN BOTH
HOMELESS MEN AND THE REST OF THE POPULATION. SINCE
MY UNDERGRAD HERE AT BERKELEY, I HAVE WORKED WITH
AND STUDIED THE HOMELESS POPULATIONS IN BERKELEY AND
SAN FRANCISCO. FOR FOR MY MASTER’S THESIS, I
CONDUCTED AN ORIGINAL ESPECIALLY DEEM LOGIC ANALYSIS
USING DATA FROM THE UCSF SHADOW COHORT STUDY. THE
STUDY WAS INTERESTED IN THE PHYSICAL AND METAL
HEALTH WAS HOMELESS IN THE TENDERLOIN, THE MISSION
AND SELMA DISTRICTS IN SAN FRANCISCO.
MY ANALYSIS FOUND THAT THE PREVALENCE OF SEXUAL
LY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS WAS SIGNIFICANTLY
HIGHER THAN AMONG WHO RECENTLY EXPERIENCED VIOLENCE
THAN WOMEN WHO HAD NOT. WE ALSO FOUND THAT VIOLENCE
PERPETRATED BY SOMEONE WHO WAS NOT A PRIMARY PARTNER
WAS THE MOST COMMON SOURCE OF VIOLENCE EXPERIENCED
BY THESE LADIES. THIS SUGGESTS THAT HEALTH CARE AND
SOCIAL SERVICE PROVIDERS FOCUS ON PRIMARY PARTNER
VIOLENCE SCREENING COMPLETELY MISSES THE MARK WITH
THIS VULNERABLE POPULATION. SO WHY AM I DOING RESEARCH LIKE
THIS? DOCUMENT ING THE HEALTH REALITIES OF
VULNERABLE, UNDERSTUDIED POPULATIONS USING
RESEARCH CAN ULTIMATELY LEAD TO POLICY CHANGE
SUCH AS POLICIES TO PROTECT EXISTING AND CREATE MORE
AFFORDABLE HOUSING. ALSO, RESEARCH CAN INFORM PUBLIC
HEALTH ENTER SENSE CONVENTIONS THAT ADDRESS THE —
INTERVENTIONS THAT ADDRESS THE ROOT OF THE PLUME,
SUCH AS HOMES. PROVIDING HOUSING AS A BASIC
NEED CAN SERVE AS A FOUNDATIONAL FIRST STEP TOWARDS
FINDING A JOB, ACCESSING METAL HEALTH CARE
SERVICES AND MAKING BEHAVIORAL HEALTH CHANGES. IF
WE AS PUBLIC HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TAKE A HEALTH
EQUITY APPROACH TOWARDS LEVELING THE PLAYING FIELDS AND
CREATING MORE EQUITABLE SOCIETY, WE CAN REDUCE
THE PREVALENCE OF HOMELESSNESS. THANK YOU.
(APPLAUSE) Speaker: SO THIS MUST BE
INCREDIBLY REWARDING WORK TO DO. CAN YOU TELL US —
MAYBE SHARE WITH US A COUPLE OF THE MOST REWARDING
MOMENTS YOU’VE HAD WITH YOUR WORK WITH HOMELESS
POPULATIONS. Speaker: WOW.
Speaker: WHERE YOU HAVE MADE A DIFFERENCE TO
SOMEBODY. Speaker: TOTALLY. BEFORE —
RIGHT NOW I’M IN AN ACCELERATED MASTER OF PUBLIC
HEALTH PROGRAM IN EPIDEMIOLOGY AND BIOSTATISTICS.
BUT BEFORE THIS I DID MY UNDERGRAD HERE IN PUBLIC
HEALTH AND THE WAY I GOT INVOLVED IN QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH WITH THIS POPULATION WAS ACTUALLY THROUGH
CASE WORKING WITH THE COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION ON
CAMPUS CALLED THE SUITCASE. IT’S ONE OF THE
LARGEST UNDERGRADUATE HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS AND
THEY HOST THREE WEEKLY DROP-IN CLINICS. SO YOU
CASE WORK. YOU GET TO KNOW THESE FOLKS. YOU SEE
THEM EVERYWHERE ON THE STREET, LIKE I’M RIDING MY BIKE
AND I SEE ROGER AND I’M LIKE, HEY, ROGER. AND THEN
I GET LUNCH WITH SOMEONE. YOU HEAR ABOUT THEIR
LIFE BUT YOU ALSO CONNECT THEM TO HOUSING AND
EMPLOYMENT SERVICES OR, LIKE, HOW TO GEL CAL FRESH AND
THESE DIFFERENT THINGS. I THINK THE PERSONAL
CONNECTIONS HAVE BEEN THE MOST REWARDING BUT THEN ALSO
RECOGNIZING, LIKE, MY RESEARCH AND CONDUCTING
RESEARCH WITH THIS POPULATION COULD POTENTIALLY BE
DAMAGING AND TRIGGER ING FOR THEM AS WELL. AND SO I
WANT TO HAVE THE MOST RESPECT AND RECOGNIZE
MY ROLE AS PRIVILEGED IN IT ALL, TOO.
Speaker: HOW DID YOU GET INTERESTED IN THIS?
Speaker: YEAH. I DID PUBLIC HEALTH HERE AS AN
UNDERGRAD. Speaker: HOW DID YOU GET
INTERESTED IN THAT? (LAUGHTER)
Speaker: BEFORE COMING TO BERKELEY, I GREW UP
IN SAN DIEGO AND I STARTED IN EVENTS THERE CALLED
TED X EVENT. AN INDEPENDENT TED X EVENT. I SAW A
TED TALK TALKING ABOUT PRIMARY PREVENTION AND THE
IDEA THAT A SINGLE VACCINE OR SOME SORT OF, LIKE,
STRUCTURAL INTERVENTION COULD SHIFT THE HEALTH OF
THE ENTIRE POPULATION RATHER THAN JUST HELPING ONE
INDIVIDUAL WITH MEDICINE, FOR INSTANCE, WAS JUST
LIFE-CHANGING TO ME. I SO I THOUGHT I’M GOING TO
APPLY TO PUBLIC HEALTH SCHOOLS AND BERKELEY IS THE
NUMBER ONE PUBLIC HEALTH UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM AND
SO I FOUND MYSELF HERE. Speaker: I KNOW THE SORT OF
CONCEPT AND ESTABLISHMENT OF NAVIGATION
CENTERS FOR THE HOMELESS IS SOMETIMES QUITE
CONTROVERSIAL. WHAT ARE YOUR THOUGHTS ON THEM?
Speaker: MY NAVIGATION SYSTEMS YOU MEAN TO
TRACK — Speaker: WHERE HOMELESS PEOPLE
— Speaker: LIKE SHELTERS, FREE
MEAL PROGRAMS? WELL, AFTER WORKING AT THE
CLINIC, I HAD A VERY — I HAD A VERY EMPATHETIC ADVOCACY
PERSPECTIVE WHERE I JUST — I VIEWED TECHNOLOGY AS A
WAY TO CONNECT THESE PEOPLE TO SERVICES BECAUSE
A LOT OF THE TIME IF SOMEONE’S HOUSING IS
INSECURE, THEY MIGHT ALSO HAVE A PHONE TO LOOK TO SEE
WHERE THE CLOSEST THING IS THAT WOULD ACCEPT FOOD STAMPS
OR WHERE THE CLOSEST ACCESSIBLE BATHROOM IS.
BUT IN SAN FRANCISCO, THEY’RE DOING A LOT
OF REALLY GOOD WORK CONNECTING THE HOMELESS TO
PERMANENT SUPPORTIVE HOUSING UNITS BECAUSE THEY HAVE
7500 HOMELESS PEOPLE AND ENOUGH PERMANENT SUPPORTIVE
HOUSING BEDS BUT JUST ACTUALLY GETTING THEM INTO
THAT IS AN EFFORT THAT’S HAPPENING NOW.
Speaker: GREAT. THANK YOU SO MUCH.
Speaker: GOOD LUCK. (APPLAUSE).
SO OUR EIGHTH CONTESTANT IS QINQIN YU. QINQIN
IS IN THIRD YEAR OF THE PH.D. PROGRAM IN PHYSICS. QINQIN YU.
Speaker: IF WE CAN PREDICT EVOLUTION, WE WOULD
BE ABLE TO PREDICT CANCER TUMORS. HOWEVER, RANDOM
MUTATIONS CREATE THE DIVERSITY FROM WHICH ADAPTATION
CAN ACT. BUT EVEN IF ALL THE MUTATIONS WERE
COMPLETELY PREDETERMINED, IF WE INVOLVED A
POPULATION MULTIPLE TIMES, WE WOULD STILL GET THAT
DIFFERENT SPECIES SURVIVED EACH TIME, SIMILAR TO
REPEATEDLY PICKING BALLS OUT OF A HALL AND GETTING
DIFFERENT RESULTS. ANIMAL EVOLUTION IS CHALLENGING
BECAUSE IT CAN TAKE A LONG TIME TO REPRODUCE. A
SINGLE ANIMAL GENERATION TAKES YEARS AND TYPICAL
EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS TAKE THOUSANDS TO MILLIONS OF
GENERATIONS. I DON’T WANT TO SPEND THAT LONG ON MY
PH.D. (LAUGHTER) ON THE OTHER HAND, MY RESEARCH
USES MICROBES, TAKES US DAYS TO COMPLETE.
WHERE MICROBIAL EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WE HAVE
LOVED THAT THE LARGER POPULATION IS, THE MORE
PREDICTABLE ITS EVOLUTION WILL BE. ANY RANDOM FLUCTUATION
GET AVERAGED OUT OVER LARGE NUMBERS. HOWEVER,
MICROBIAL EXPERIMENTS TAKE PLACE IN LIQUID
ENVIRONMENTS WITH NO SPATIAL STRUCTURE. BUT WE KNOW THAT
ORGANISMS IN THE REAL WORLD LIVE IN SPACE SUCH AS
INFECTIONS THAT GROW ON THE SURFACE OF A CATHETER
IMPLANT OR ON THE INSIDE OF A HUMAN LUNG.
IT TURNS OUT THAT IF WE CAN FIND LARGE MICROBIAL
POPULATIONS IN SPACE, EVEN THEY CAN EVOLVE UN UN
PREDICTABLY. MY RESEARCH IS ON UNDERSTANDING WHY
THAT IS AND WHAT CHANGES TO CELLULAR TO GENETIC
INFORMATION CAN TUNE THIS. I’VE SEEN THAT CELL
SHAPE CAN ACT AS A TUNEING KNOB: E. COLI CAN
COMPETE WITH EACH OTHER MORE FOR SPACE THAN ROUND
CELLS. THESE SPATIAL REARRANGEMENTS CAUSE THE ROD-
SHAPED CELLS TO SCRAMBLE THEIR FATES LEADING TO
A LESS PREDICTABLE OUTCOME. BY BETTER UNDERSTANDING
SPATIAL STRUCTURE IN EVOLUTION, WE CAN BEGIN TO
CREATE MORE REALISTIC PICTURES OF SYSTEMS THAT AFFECT
US ALL SUCH AS MICROBIAL INFECTIONS, CANCER
TUMOR EVOLUTION, AND SPECIES EXTINCTION.
AND BY USING MICROBIAL EXPERIMENTS, WE CAN
PRECISELY TUNE AND REPEAT EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS SO
IN THE FUTURE WE MIGHT BE ABLE TO PREDICT UNPREDICT
ABILITY. THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) Speaker: THANK YOU. SO HOW DO
YOU GET INTO THIS FROM — IT’S NOT WHAT I
CONSIDER TO BE PHYSICS. IT’S INTERESTING. HOW DO YOU GET INTO THIS
PARTICULAR ASPECT OF WHAT YOU’RE DOING?
Speaker: YEAH. SO I HAVE ALWAYS BEEN
INTERESTED IN INTERDISLIN NEAR PROBLEMS TO HOW TO
USE PHYSICS TO STUDY OTHER REALLY INTERESTING
QUESTIONS. I TOOK A CLASS IN UNDERGRAD THAT WAS IN
BIOPHYSICS. THAT WAS NOT HERE. THAT WAS AT M.I.T.
Speaker: YOU CAN MENTION THE OTHER PLACES.
(LAUGHTER). Speaker: AND IT REALLY SPARKED
MY INTEREST. WHEN I GOT TO GRAD SCHOOL, I
WORKED WITH A COUPLE OF DIFFERENT PROFESSORS IN
ROTATIONS BEFORE I CHOSE A LAB. ONE OF THE PROFESSORS I
WAS FORTUNATE TO WORK WITH WAS MY P.I. AND THE
QUESTION WAS THAT THEY WERE ASKING WAS REALLY
INTERESTING AND I DECIDED I WANTED TO STUDY IT FOR MY PH.D.
DO YOU THINK. Speaker: DO YOU THINK THERE IS
A POSSIBILITY TO TAKE A DIFFERENT APPROACH TO
MANIPULATION TO JUST EXPLORING RANDOM DEVELOPMENTS
ACTUALLY DEVELOP DIFFERENT STRAINS OF
MICROORGANIZISMS? Speaker: LIKE TO USE RANDOMNESS
IN OUR FAVOR TO ENGINEER —
Speaker: A DIFFERENT APPROACH TO TRY AND TAKE
— DEVELOP ORGANISMS WITH PARTICULAR
CHARACTERISTICS? Speaker: YEAH. THAT’S A GOOD
QUESTION. I’M NOT A BIOENGINEER, SO I’M
PROBABLY NOT THE BEST PERSON TO ASK. BUT I THINK THE
ANSWER IS YES, THAT WE CAN USE RANDOMNESS IN OUR
FAVOR TO ACHIEVE CERTAIN OUTCOMES. AND OUR LAB
IS ACTUALLY REALLY INTERESTED IN STUDYING
RANDOMNESS FOR HOPEFULLY THAT PURPOSE, FOR THAT POTENTIAL
PURPOSE, TO BE ABLE TO USE IT IN, SAY, DISEASE
TREATMENTS INSTEAD OF JUST ERADICATEING A RESISTANT TYPE
RIGHT AWAY. MAYBE WE CAN BE CLEVER ABOUT THE
RANDOMNESS AND KEEP IT ALIVE FOR LONGER SO THAT IN THE FUTURE
WE MIGHT BE ABLE TO ERADICATE IT. SO I THINK THE
ANSWER IS YES. BUT, LIKE I SAID, I’M NOT A
BIOENGINEER. SO THEY MIGHT HAVE VERY DIFFERENT OPINIONS.
Speaker: SO THE ARRAYS THAT YOU SHOW ARE ALL
THE SAME ORGANISM. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU END UP
WITH A DIFFERENT MICROORGANISM IN A DIFFERENT
MICRO MICROBIOME?
Speaker: THAT’S A REALLY GOOD QUESTION. SO,
YEAH, ONE RESEARCH QUESTION THAT OUR FIELD IS
FASCINATED WITH RIGHT NOW IS THE INTERACTION OF
EVOLUTION WITH ECOLOGY, WITH ECOLOGY BEING WHEN YOU
HAVE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AROUND, HOW DO THEY INTER
ACT WITH EACH OTHER. AND AS THE SHORT ANSWER,
I THINK THE ANSWER IS YES. THEY’RE INTRODUCING TO
BE ACTIONS BETWEEN THE TWO. IF YOU HAVE MULTIPLE
SPECIES AROUND, THEN IT INFLUENCES EVOLUTION IN A
WAY DIFFERENT WAY. Speaker: INTERESTING. THANK
YOU SO MUCH. Speaker: THANK YOU.
(APPLAUSE) OUR NEXT CONTESTANT IS JESSICA
HEIGES. JESSICA IS A SECOND-YEAR MAST MASTER
STUDENT IN DEVELOPMENT PRACTICE. JESSICA. Speaker: IN THE U.S.,
ONLY 10% OF PLASTIC IS RE CYCLED. A PIECE OF PLASTIC IS
USED FOR ABOUT 12 MINUTES, YET LASTS FOR A
THOUSAND YEARS. FOOD PACKAGING AND CONTAINERS ARE
PREDOMINANTLY MADE OUT OF PLASTIC. AND THE AVERAGE
PERSON IN THE U.S. GENERATES 500 POUNDS OF
DISPOSABLE FOOD EVERY SINGLE YEAR. AND ALTHOUGH COME
POSTABLE FOOD PACKAGING IS AN IMPROVEMENT, IT STILL
GENERATES 67 TIMES THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AS ITS
REUSABLE EQUIVALENT. ALTHOUGH IT’S BETTER FOODWARE,
IT STILL IS NOT THAT GOOD. AND WE’RE IN THE MIDST OF
A GLOBAL MOVEMENT TO REDUCE OUR RELINES ON
DISPOSABLE FOODWARE. AND ALL GLOBAL MOVEMENTS NEED LOCAL
SOLUTIONS. REPEEL IS MY PROPOSAL OF A GLOBAL
SOLUTION. I STARTED REPEEL TO CREATE
DISPOSABLE-FREE DIN ING EXPERIENCES ON UNIVERSITY
CAMPUSES. AND IT’S ONE PRAGUE PROGRAMMATIC SOLUTION. THEY PAY
A SMALL DEPOSIT. THEY WILL ENJOY THEIR
MEAL WHEREVER THEY WISH. WHEN ONE, THEY PUT THEIR
DIRTY CONTAINER IN A CONVENIENTLY LOCATED BIN AT
WHICH POINT THEY WILL BE COLLECTED, SCANNED, AND THAT’S
WHEN THEIR DEPOSIT WILL BE FULLY REFUNDED TO THE
CUSTOMER’S ACCOUNT. AND THEN THE CONTAINERS WILL BE
WASHED AND RE DISTRIBUTED BACK TO THE
PARTICIPATING FOOD PROVIDERS.
IN NOVEMBER, I CONDUCTED A PILOT AT CAFE THINK
AT HOSS AND WHERE WE REPLACED THE DISPOSABLE FOODWAR
E WITH ONE FOOD ITEM. WE LEARNED THROUGH
VERY IMPORTANT THINGS. FIRST, PEOPLE ACTUALLY USE
THE CONTAINERS AND THOSE THAT USE THEM, 60% OF THE
TIME RETURNED THE CONTAINERS WITHOUT ANY INCENTIVE.
SECOND, ALL STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVED WERE NOT ONLY
EXCITED ABOUT THE PILOT BUT WERE SUPPORTIVE OF ITS
EXPANSION. AND, THIRD, AT THAT CAFE ALONE
IN JUST ONE MONTH , WE HAD THE OPPORTUNITY TO
ELIMINATE 36,000 DISPOSABLE FOODWARE ITEMS. I’M
CONDUCTING TWO ADDITIONAL PILOTS, ONE ON THE
CAFE SIDE TO UNDERSTAND LOGISTICS AND
OPERATIONS. AND THE OTHER ONE TO UNDERSTAND BEHAVIOR
CHANGE NEEDS. IN CLOSING, THE WORLD LOOKS TO
THE UC SYSTEM FOR THOUGHT LEADERSHIP ON THESE
LARGE ISSUES. AND AS WE HAVE SEEN TODAY, WE CAN BRING IT
TO THEM. WE CAN BRING THAT. REPEEL IS THE
OPPORTUNITY TO TAKE THAT UNIQUE POSITION AND PROVIDE
MEASURABLE CHANGE TO A DISPOSABLE-FREE FUTURE. THANK
YOU. (APPLAUSE) Speaker: THANK YOU SO MUCH,
JESSICA. HOW ABSOLUTELY FASCINATING. COLLEGE
CAMPUSES, I THINK, ARE IDEAISTIC AND MOTIVATED
PEOPLE. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN YOU START DEALING WITH THE
GENERAL PUBLIC? (LAUGHTER)
WE WOULD LIKE TO THINK WE’RE THE GENERAL PUBLIC,
WE’RE NOT REALLY. Speaker: AGREED.
Speaker: HAS YOUR PILOT PROVIDED INSIGHT THAT
COULD ACTUALLY INFORM EFFICACY WHEN YOU GET TO THAT
STAGE? Speaker: CERTAINLY. ONE
WONDERFUL THING ABOUT A COLLEGE CAMPUS IS THAT IT MORE
OR LESS IS A CLOSED OCULOMOTOR SO IT — ECOSYSTEM SO
IT ALLOWS US TO HAVE CONTROL OVER THE LEVERS AND
ACTORS IN PLACE. WHEN YOU DO GET INTO THE GENERAL
POPULATION, YOU DON’T HAVE AS MUCH CONTROL OVER
WHERE PEOPLE ARE COMING AND GOING AND CONSUMEING
AND SO FORTH. SO THE UNDERLYING INFRASTRUCTURE,
THIS IS UPSTREAM OF WHAT THE PRODUCTS ARE BEING
CREATED AS WELL AS DOWNSTREAM OF HOW THEY’RE BEING
COLLECTED AND SORTED . THAT’S WHAT NEEDS TO BE
CHANGED. NOT NECESSARILY THE INDIVIDUALS
BECAUSE THERE IS SO MUCH COMING AND GOING AND SO MUCH
NEWNESS AND DIFFERENT BACKGROUNDS. IT’S REALLY THOSE
TWO SIDES THAT NEED TO HAVE THE IMPACT.
Speaker: SO IS THIS A KIND OF RECREATING THE
MODEL THAT THEY USED TO HAVE WHERE SODA BOTTLES AND
THINGS WEREN’T DISPOSABLE, THAT CUSTOMERS HAD TO
DEPOSIT? Speaker: EXACTLY. IT’S JUST
LIKE THE MILK CARTON OR THE GLASS BOTTLE.
Speaker: I’M FROM ANOTHER COUNTRY WHERE THEY
STILL HAVE MILK BOTTLES.>>THAT’S EXACTLY IT. FOR THIS
REUSABLE PROGRAM , YOU PAY A DEPOSIT BUT THEN YOU
GET IT FULLY REFUNDED BACK.
Speaker: HOW DO YOU STERILIZE YOUR CONTAINERS?
Speaker: COMMERCIAL DISHWASHERS THAT ARE
CERTIFIED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND SAFETY AT
CAMPUS. Speaker: OKAY. SO TELL ME MORE
ABOUT YOURSELF, WHERE ARE YOU FROM?
Speaker: I’M FROM THE VERY FAR LANDS OF SONOMA
COUNTY AND MARIN. (LAUGHTER)
I WENT TO THE EAST COAST FOR COLLEGE BUT
COULDN’T STAY AWAY, CLEARLY. Speaker: SO WHEN
YOU ARE NOT REPEELING — Speaker: I LOVE THAT AS A VERB.
(LAUGHTER) Speaker: LET’S GO REPEEL.
Speaker: WHAT DO YOU DO FOR RECREATION?
ESPECIALLY HAVING GROWN UP AROUND HERE, YOU MUST
KNOW A LOT ABOUT THE LOCALITY. HOW DO YOU LIKE TO
SPEND YOUR TIME? Speaker: I LOVING — I LOVE
BEING OUTDOORS. ONE REASON IS THERE’S VERY
LITTLE WASTE OUTDOORS. ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL ROLE HAS
REALLY ADOPTED THE PACK IN-PACK OUT MENTALITY AND THAT’S
WHAT’S FUELED THE WORK HERE. ANYTHING OUTDOORS,
CAMPING, HIKING, CYCLING, WATER SKIING, I LOVE
DOING THAT. Speaker: THANK YOU SO MUCH.
Speaker: THANK YOU. (APPLAUSE) AND SO OUR TENTH AND FINAL
CONTESTANT IS CHANDAN SINGH. CHANDAN IS A SECOND-YEAR
PH.D. STUDENT IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND
COMPUTER SCIENCE. AND I THINK HE DESERVES A SPECIAL
APPLAUSE FOR HAVING BY THE LUCK OF THE DRAW OR
OTHERWISE BE THE PERSON TO LISTEN TO EVERYBODY ELSE’S
PRESENTATION BEFORE HE HAS TO GIVE HIS. SO PLEASE JOIN
ME IN WELCOMING CHANDAN.
(APPLAUSE) Speaker: MACHINE LEARNING IS
TRANSFORMING THE WAY THE WORLD WORKS. EVERY DAY
MACHINE LEARNING SEEPS INTO MORE AND MORE AFFECTS
OF OUR DAILY LIVES, WHETHER IT BE DECIDING WHAT WE
SEE ON THE INTERNET OR GETTING THOSE ANNOYING TV
BOTS ON CAMPUS ALL THE TIME.
(LAUGHTER) MORE IMPORTANTLY, CRUCIAL
DECISIONS THAT HUMANS USED TO ALWAYS MAKE, THINGS LIKE
DIAGNOSING DISEASE OR DRIVING CARS, ARE NOW
INCREASINGLY ASSISTED BY THESE MACHINE LEARNING MODELS.
THE WAY MACHINE LEARNING MODELS GENERALLY WORK,
THEY LOOK AT A LOT OF DATA AND LEARN COMPLEX
PATTERNS FROM IT. IF YOU GIVE A MODEL A BUNCH OF BRAIN
SCANS AND TELL IT THE ASSOCIATED DIAGNOSIS FOR EACH OF
THOSE BRAIN SCANS, IT CAN PREDICT WHAT THAT
DIAGNOSIS SHOULD BE FOR A NEW BRAIN SCAN. EVEN IF IT HAS
NEVER SEEN IT BEFORE . IT DOES THIS BY LEARNING
STATISTICAL IRREGULARITIES. THIS IS A
REALLY POWERFUL IDEA BY LOOKING AT THESE THINGS AND
LEARNING SUPER COMPLEX PATTERNS, IT CAN LEARN THINGS
THAT HUMANS CAN NEVER HOPE TO LEARN BECAUSE OF HOW
COMPLEX THEY ARE. HOWEVER, ALL THIS POWER COMES
WITH A VERY SERIOUS COST, AND THAT COST IS THAT
THESE MODELS CAN’T EXPLAIN HOW OR WHY THEY’RE
MAKING THOSE DECISIONS. THIS IS REALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE
IN CRITICAL CONTEXT LIKE MEDICAL DECISION-MAKING, WE
NEED TO KNOW WHEN A MODEL IS GOING TO FAIL, HOW MUCH
WE CAN TRUST IT, AND WHY IT’S MAKING THE DECISION
THAT IT’S MAKING. SO THIS PROBLEM INSPIRED ME TO
START A RECENT RESEARCH PROJECT WHERE WE’RE
TRYING TO EXPLAIN HOW MACHINE LEARNING MODELS MAKE
THEIR DECISION. IF WE CONSIDER A SIMPLE PROBLEM WHERE
A MODEL TELLS YOU IF SOME TEXT IS POSITIVE OR
NEGATIVE, WE CAN BUILD A MODEL THAT CAN DO IT REALLY
WELL. THEN THIS SIMPLE BLACK BOX MODEL
REPRESENTS MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM WHICH
TAKES THIS TEXT NOT VERY GOOD AND TELLS YOU THAT
IT’S NEGATIVE. NOW THE QUESTION IS HOW DID IT COME TO
THIS DECISION? SO WITH THE ALGORITHM THAT OUR DOES
IT LOOKS AT THE EQUATIONS UNDERLYING THE MODEL
AND TELLING YOU HOW THE MODEL FEELS ABOUT DIFFERENT
PARTS OF THIS INPUT. SPECIFICALLY, IT GIVES YOU THIS
KIND OF ARC CAN I CALL TREE STRUCTURE WHICH TELLS
YOU HOW IT FELT ABOUT DIFFERENT SUBSETS OF THE
INPUT SENTENCE. SO THE WORD “GOOD” IN BLUE IS
PRETTY POSITIVE AND IT COMBINES WITH “VERY GOOD” IT
BECOMES VERY POSITIVE. WHEN YOU ADD “NOT GOOD” THE
ENTIRE THING BECOMES NEGATIVE. THIS ALLOWS US TO SEE
THE INNER WORKINGS OF THE BLACK BOX, HOW IT FEELS
ABOUT DIFFERENT SUB SETS OF THE REPRESENTATION.
IN A MORE SERIOUS CONTEXT, WE CAN IMAGINE THIS
MODEL INSTEAD OF TELLING US THE CONTEXT IS POSITIVE
OR NEGATIVE, IT IS TELLING US IF SOMEONE IS USING
THEIR MEDICAL SCAN HAD SOME KIND OF DISEASE. NOW,
INSTEAD OF SHOWING US WHICH WORDS ARE IMPORTANT, IT
WILL TELL US WHAT PARTS OF THE BRAIN SCAN OR
SOMETHING SIMILAR ARE IMPORTANT FOR MAKING THAT KIND
OF DIAGNOSIS. ADDITIONALLY IT TELLS YOU HOW
DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BRAIN SCAN COORDINATE WITH
ONE ANOTHER IN ORDER TO FINALLY PRODUCE THE
DIAGNOSIS. A DOCTOR CAN LOOK AT SOMETHING LIKE THIS
AND DECIDE IS THE MODEL DOING SOMETHING SENSIBLE AND
HOW CAN I LEARN FROM THIS MODEL IN ORDER TO MAKE
BETTER DIAGNOSES GOING FORWARD. WE HOPE THIS WORK
AND OTHER WORK TRYING TO DO INTEGRAL MACHINE
LEARNING AND OPENING THIS BLACK BLOCKS CAN HELP
MACHINE LEARNING TO BE MORE ACCOUNTABLE AS THEY GET
SPREAD INTO THESE CRITICAL SITUATIONS THAT HAVE
IMPACT ON SOCIETY. (APPLAUSE) Speaker: THANK YOU, CHANDAN.
SO I HAVE TO ASK YOU, YOU’VE ACTUALLY EXPLAINED A
LOT IN THIS AREA. SO THANK YOU FOR OPENING UP THE
BLACK BOX. WITHIN THE SORT OF FIELD OF
MACHINE LEARNING, HOW BROADLY A.M.ABLE ARE —
APPLICABLE THESE PRINCIPLES? YOU MENTIONED
PARTICULARLY MEDICAL APPLICATIONS. ARE PRINCIPLES TO
MEDICAL APPLICATION S APPLICABLE MORE GENERALLY?
Speaker: THIS IS REALLY COOL ABOUT THE LAST
DECADE OF MACHINE LEARNING SPECIFICALLY. NEURAL
NETWORKS ARE ABLE TO LEARN STATISTIC REGULARITIES
ACROSS A LARGE TYPE OF REALLY LARGE VARIETY OF DATA
BEDS. SO THINGS THAT STARTED WORKING LIKE THIS IS A
CAT, THIS IS A DOG, NOW WORKS ON THINGS LIKE TEXT.
THEY WORK ON AUDIO. THEY WORK ON MEDICAL IMAGING
TYPE SCENARIOS. THEY ARE BECOMING BROADLY
APPLICABLE AND THERE’S A LOT OF MAGIC GOING ON
BEHIND THE SCENES. Speaker: YOU ARE PROBABLY SICK
OF ANSWERING THIS QUESTION. BUT IS THERE A
MACHINE LEARNING ELEMENT TO THE SOFTWARE IN
BOWING — BOEING 737? NOT THAT YOU’RE A PSYCHIC.
Speaker: YES. HOPEFULLY THINGS LIKE THIS WOULD
HELP YOU FIND OUT IF THERE WERE THAT KIND OF ERR
ROAR IN MACHINE LEARNING — ERROR IN MACHINE
LEARNING SYSTEMS. THERE IS SOME MACHINE LEARNING
ELEMENT IN THAT SYSTEM BUT IT ISN’T ACTUALLY WHAT
WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR KIND OF THE NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCE
S WE SAW. IT WAS MORE OF A SENSORY ISSUE>>THAT WAS A HARDWARE, NOT THE
SOFTWARE. Speaker: YEAH. SO IT’S
TANGENTIALLY RELATED BUT IT WASN’T AT FAULT THIS
TIME. Speaker: SO TELL US ABOUT
YOURSELF IN TERMS OF HOW YOU GOT INTERESTED IN THIS
FIELD AND KIND OF WHERE YOU’RE FROM AND WHERE YOU
GO YOUR UNDER GRADUATE WORK.
>>I’M FROM VIRGINIA. I WENT TO THE UNDER
GRADUATE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA. THE
BRAIN IS ANOTHER COMPLICATED BLACK BOX. IT DOES ALL
THESE MAGICAL THINGS. WE CAN SEE AND HEAR THINGS.
NEUROSCIENTISTS ARE TRYING TO UNDERSTAND THIS BLACK
BOX. THE MACHINE LEARNING SIDE IS MORE ABOUT LIKE
HOW CAN WE MAKE THIS BLACK BOX DO THINGS. AS THEE
MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHMS BECAME MORE AND MORE TO
RESEMBLE A LOT OF THINGS WE SEE IN NEUROSCIENCE, IT
BECAME A MORE INTERESTING FIELD TO ME TO LOOK AT
WHAT DO THESE REPRESENTATIONS ACTUALLY LEARN AND HOW
CAN WE USE NEURON SCIENCE TO UNDERSTAND WHAT’S GOING
ON IN THIS MODELS. Speaker: HAVE YOU ENJOYED AND
CALIFORNIA AND BERKELEY COMPARED TO UNIVERSITY
OF VIRGINIA?>>I.
Speaker: I REALLY LIKE VIRGINIA AS WELL. BUT
CALIFORNIA IS GREAT. I’M A BIG NATURE PERSON AND
CALIFORNIA HAS MAYBE THE BEST NATURE. WE HAVE SIMI
VALLEY. WE HAVE SILICON VALLEY AND DEATH VALLEY.
(LAUGHTER). WE HAVE A LOT OF VALLEYS. Speaker: GREAT. THANK
YOU SO MUCH. (APPLAUSE) Speaker: OKAY. OUR JUDGES HAVE
DONE THEIR WORK . AND WE NOW MOVE ON TO THE
PEOPLE’S CHOICE BALLOTING, AND I BELIEVE THERE’S
SOME INSTRUCTIONS THAT ARE ABOUT TO APPEAR. IS
THAT RIGHT? EXCELLENT , GOOD. OKAY. SO WE HAVE —
NOW YOU HAVE THE OPPORTUNITY. THE
INFORMATION IS THERE. FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS SO THAT YOU
CAN GO TO YOUR PHONE OR YOUR LAPTOP AND CAST YOUR BALLOT
FOR THE PEOPLE’S CHOICE AWARD. OUR CONTESTANTS
ARE LEAVING. I THINK THEY’RE DISQUALIFIED THERE DOING
THAT. THESE AWARDS — THIS IS GOING TO
BE OPEN FOR 15 MINUTES. SO YOU MIGHT WANT TO
JUST MAKE SURE THAT YOU CAST YOUR BALLOT NOW.
IF YOU HAVE ANY PROBLEMS, PLEASE RAISE YOUR
HAND. THIS ROOM IS SOMETIMES USED AS A CLASSROOM.
YOU WOULDN’T BE THE FIRST PERSON TO RAISE YOUR HAND
IN HERE. AND SOMEBODY WILL COME AND ASSIST
YOU. AND THEN ONCE YOU VOTED,IDE INVITE I WOULD
LIKE TO INVITE YOU TO JOIN ME TO LIGHT REFRESHMENTS IN
THE LOBBY. JESSICA WILL BE DISAPPOINTED. WE WON’T
HAVE THE REPEEL THERE. WE WILL HAVE TO SLUM IT
WITH THE DISPOSABLE ITEMS. CAST YOUR VOTE FOR THE
PEOPLE’S CHOICE. AND THEN WE WILL BE RECONVENING —
THIS IS VERY IMPORTANT — AT 5:00 SHARP WHICH
IS WHEN WE WILL BE ANNOUNCING THE WINNERS. SO
THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION.
(APPLAUSE) THIS IS PROBABLY RELATED TO THE
GERRYMANDERING TALK. VOTE EARLY AND OFTEN.
YOU CAN ONLY VOTE FOR ONE INDIVIDUAL. Speaker: ALL RIGHT. SO
WELCOME BACK, EVERYBODY , FOR THE MOMENT THAT EVERYBODY
HAS BEEN WAITING FOR . WE CAN USE A DRUMROLL .
(APPLAUSE) AND WITHOUT QUESTION, WE’RE
CREATING COMMUNITY HERE. AND SO THE PEOPLE’S
CHOICE WINNER IS QINQIN YU FOR PREDICTING UNPREDICT ABILITY.
(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE) SO WHEN GIVING NOMINAL
CERTIFICATES, WE’LL BE SETTLING UP WITH THE WINNERS
LATER AND THEN THEY’LL GET A PROPER CERTIFICATE THAT’S
SIGNED. BUT, ANYWAY , FOR THE PURPOSES OF
PHOTOGRAPHY… (LAUGHTER) (APPLAUSE) Speaker: OKAY. THE SECOND
PLACE WINNER IS YIFAN LI FOR THE FAST TRACK
THROUGH FOE PHOTO SYNTHESIS.
(APPLAUSE) CONGRATULATIONS. AND BIG EXCITEMENT, THE FIRST
PLACE WINNER MAD TO THE CERTIFICATE HAS A NOMINAL
CHECK HERE. AGAIN, WE’LL SEND THE PROPER ONE LATER.
(LAUGHTER) SO THE FINALIST, THE PERSON WHO
WILL REPRESENT BERKELEY AT THE SYSTEMWIDE GRAD
SLAM COMPETITION IS NANCY FREITAS FOR MICROBES IN
THE ARCTIC. (CHEERS AND APPLAUSE) (APPLAUSE) SO AS WE WRAP THINGS UP, I WOULD
LIKE TO HAVE A SPECIAL ROUND OF APPLAUSE FOR
ALL OF THE STUDENT CONTESTANTS.
(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE) DURING THE BREAK SO MANY PEOPLE
CAME UP TO ME AND COMMENTED ON THE INCREDIBLE
QUALITY AND PROFESSIONALISM OF ALL OF YOUR
PRESENTATIONS. IT WAS FANTASTIC. SO POISED AND
DID SUCH A GREAT JOB. AND I KNOW BECAUSE OF ALL THE
TALKS WERE SO GREAT, WE ABSOLUTELY HAVE TO GIVE
ANOTHER ROUND OF APPLAUSE TO OUR JUDGES.
(APPLAUSE) BECAUSE I KNOW THAT THEIR JOB
WAS REALLY, REALLY HARD. PEOPLE THANK ME FOR DOING
THE EMCEEING, BUT IT’S NOT NEARLY AS DIFFICULT AS
ACTUALLY JUDGING. SO I’M SO GRATEFUL TO THEM. I’D
ALSO LIKE TO THANK THE ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR
GRADUATE STUDENT AND POST-DOCTORAL SCHOLAR FOR
DEVELOPMENT WHO DID ALL THE FIRST-ROUND JUDGING AND ALSO
A SPECIAL NOTE OF THANKS TO JOE FOR COMING BACK.
(APPLAUSE) SPEAKING SO ELOQUENTLY OF THE
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION. AND IT REALLY IS
IMPORTANT THAT THOSE OF US WHO ARE SCHOLARS AND
KNOW A LOT ABOUT IMPORTANT MATTERS ARE ABLE TO
ACTUALLY COMMUNICATE THE IMPORTANCE OF OUR LEARNING
TO SOCIETY AND SOCIETY BENEFITS ENORMOUSLY FROM
THAT. I THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR THAT VERY COMPELLING
TALK, JOE. I’D ALSO LIKE TO EXTEND
INCREDIBLY DEEP THANKS TO ALL OF MY COLLEAGUES IN THE
GRADUATE DIVISION WHO WORKED SO HARD FOR THIS EVENT.
THE MAIN ROLL WAS PLAYED BY LINDA LOU WE WITH
ASSISTANCE FROM ANDY BEHIND THE CAMERA, LIZ WHO IS
CHEERING US ON AND KEPT ON HOLDING UP THE PIECES OF
PAPER TO TELL US WHEN IT WAS TIME TO MOVE ON,
LARISA AND ALSO OUR
PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT LIAISONS HELPED PARTICULAR
LY JOVAN AND TAMIS WHO HELPED COACH THE
STUDENTS TO THAT THEY WERE PUTTING THEIR BEST FOOT
FORWARD IN THE PRESENTATION. SO THANK YOU SO MUCH
TO EVERYBODY. THIS WAS A GREAT AFTERNOON.
AND I PARTICULARLY ENJOYED HOSTING THIS IN THE
SIBLEY AUDITORIUM. THOSE WHO DON’T KNOW ME, I’M A
PROFESSOR IN ENGINEERING. I’VE ACTUALLY TAUGHT
QUITE A LOT OF CLASSES FROM RIGHT HERE, ALTHOUGH I
HAVE NOTICED SINCE THEN THEY’VE CHANGED THE AV
DISPLAY HERE SO I COULDN’T DO ANYTHING TO MESS
THINGS UP WHICH IS PROBABLY A GOOD THING. BUT THANK
YOU SO MUCH FOR EVERYBODY FOR YOUR SUPPORT AND
ATTENTION. AND ANOTHER ROUND OF APPLAUSE TO
OUR AMAZING CONTESTANTS.
(APPLAUSE) THANK YOU.


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